Power point cardiovascular disease

profilethinkerbell
PRESENTATIONFEMALECANCER.pptx

Screening for Breast Cancer, Cervical Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, and Endometrial Cancer

FNU

Karel Bell-Lloch

1

Definition

Cancer occurs as a result of mutations, or abnormal changes, in the genes responsible for regulating the growth of cells and keeping them healthy. 

That changed cell gains the ability to keep dividing without control or order, producing more cells just like it and forming a tumor.

2

Cancer in the female population

Breast cancer:

Cervical Cancer

Ovarian cancer

Endometrial cancer

Breast cancer

The term “breast cancer” refers to a malignant tumor that has developed from cells in the breast. 

Breast cancer

A. Ducts

B. Lobules

D. Nipple

Breast Cancer epidemiology

About 1 in 8 U.S. women (about 12.4%) will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime.

In 2018, an estimated 266,120 new cases of invasive breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed in women in the U.S., along with 63,960 new cases of non-invasive (in situ) breast cancer.

In women under 45, breast cancer is more common in African-American women than white women

About 85% of breast cancers occur in women who have no family history of breast cancer. These occur due to genetic mutations that happen as a result of the aging process and life in general, rather than inherited mutations.

These occur due to genetic mutations that happen as a result of the aging process and life in general, rather than inherited mutations.

6

Breast cancer risk factors

The most significant risk factor for breast cancer are gender (being a woman) and age (growing older).

Alcohol intake, smoking and obesity

A man’s lifetime risk of breast cancer is about 1 in 1,000.

7

Guidelines for breast cancer screening

Women ages 40 to 44 should have the choice to start annual breast cancer screening with mammograms

Women age 45 to 54 should get mammograms every year.

Women 55 and older should switch to mammograms every 2 years, or can continue yearly screening.

Screening should continue as long as a woman is in good health and is expected to live 10 more years or longer

Mammogram

During a mammogram, your breasts are compressed between two firm surfaces to spread out the breast tissue. Then an X-ray captures black-and-white images of your breasts that are displayed on a computer screen and examined by a doctor who looks for signs of cancer.

Patient education.

Eating a balanced diet, maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, limiting alcohol, and exercising regularly 

9

Cervical cancer

Definition:

Cervical cancer is

a type of cancer that

occurs in the cells of

the cervix — the lower

part of the uterus that

connects to the vagina.

Squamous cell carcinoma. Outer part of the cervix. Most cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas.

Adenocarcinoma. This type of cervical cancer begins in the column-shaped glandular cells that line the cervical canal.

10

Cervical cancer risk factors

Many sexual partners. 

Early sexual activity. 

Other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

A weak immune system. 

Smoking. Smoking is associated with squamous cell cervical cancer.

Smoking. Smoking is associated with squamous cell cervical cancer.

11

Cervical Cancer Epidemiology

12,578 new cases were diagnosed in 2014 (rate = 7.5 per 100,000 women).1

4,115 deaths in 2014 (rate = 2.3 per 100,000 women).1

Decline in cases and deaths in past 40 years correlated with Pap testing and detection and treatment of cervical pre-cancerous lesions.

Treatment costs top $2 billion per year.

The majority of cancers (50% to 64%) occur in women who were rarely or never screened.

Guide lines for cervical cancer screening according to CDC.

Cervical cancer testing should start at age 21. 

Women between the ages of 21 and 29 should have a Pap test done every 3 years.

Women between the ages of 30 and 65 should have a Pap test plus an HPV test (“co-testing”) done every 5 years. This is the preferred approach, but it’s OK to have a Pap test alone every 3 years.

Women over age 65 who have had regular cervical cancer testing in the past 10 years with normal results should not be tested .

Women with a history of a serious cervical pre-cancer should continue to be tested for at least 20 years after that diagnosis, even if testing goes past age 65.

A woman who has had her uterus and cervix removed (a total hysterectomy) for reasons not related to cervical cancer should not be tested.

All women who have been vaccinated against HPV should still follow the screening recommendations for their age groups.

Women between the ages of 21 and 29 should have a Pap test done every 3 years. HPV testing should not be used in this age group unless it’s needed after an abnormal Pap test result.

13

Cervical cancer screening test

Pap smear and HPV

Testing

-Atypical squamous cells

(ASC) 

-Low-grade squamous

intraepithelial lesions

(LSILs) 

High-grade squamous

intraepithelial lesions

(HSILs) 

-Squamous cell carcinoma 

Atypical squamous cells (ASC) are the most common abnormal finding in Pap tests.

Squamous cell carcinoma is cervical cancer. The abnormal squamous cells have invaded more deeply into the cervix or into other tissues or organs.

14

Cervical cancer patient education

Get vaccinated against HPV. Vaccination is available for girls and women ages 9 to 26.

Have routine Pap tests. Pap tests can detect precancerous conditions of the cervix, so they can be monitored or treated in order to prevent cervical cancer.

Most medical organizations suggest women begin routine Pap tests at age 21 and repeat them every few years.

Practice safe sex. Using a condom, having fewer sexual partners and delaying intercourse may reduce your risk of cervical cancer.

Don't smoke.

To reduce your risk of cervical cancer:

The vaccine is most effective if given to girls before they become sexually active.

15

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries.

Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat and is frequently fatal.

Epithelial tumors, which begin in the thin layer of tissue that covers the outside of the ovaries.

Stromal tumors, which begin in the ovarian tissue that contains hormone-producing cells.

Germ cell tumors, which begin in the egg-producing cells.

16

Ovarian cancer risk factors

Older age. 

Inherited gene mutations. 

Family history of ovarian cancer. 

Estrogen hormone replacement therapy, especially with long-term use and in large doses.

Age when menstruation started and ended. Beginning menstruation at an early age or starting menopause at a later age, or both, may increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

Older age. Ovarian cancer can occur at any age but is most common in women ages 50 to 60 years.

Inherited gene mutations. A small percentage of ovarian cancers are caused by gene mutations you inherit from your parents.

Family history of ovarian cancer. People with two or more close relatives with ovarian cancer have an increased risk of the disease.

Estrogen hormone replacement therapy, especially with long-term use and in large doses.

Age when menstruation started and ended. Beginning menstruation at an early age or starting menopause at a later age, or both, may increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

17

Ovarian Cancer Epidemiology

Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer.

21,161 new cases were diagnosed in 2014 (rate = 11.0 per 100,000 women).1

14,195 deaths in 2014 (rate = 7.0 per 100,000 women).1

The five-year survival rate for women diagnosed between 2007 and 2013 is 46.7%.

Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecologic cancer.1 It causes more deaths than any other gynecologic cancer, but it accounts for only about 3% of all cancers in women. The highest incidence is among white women.

21,161 new cases were diagnosed in 2014 (rate = 11.0 per 100,000 women).1

14,195 deaths in 2014 (rate = 7.0 per 100,000 women).1

The five-year survivial rate for women diagnosed between 2007 and 2013 is 46.7%.

18

Ovarian cancer guide lines screening

There is no simple and reliable way to screen for ovarian cancer in women who do not have any signs or symptoms.

You should have a diagnostic test, like a rectovaginal pelvic exam, a transvaginal ultrasound, or a CA-125 blood test if you have any unexplained signs or symptoms of ovarian cancer. 

Ovarian cancer signs and symptoms

Vaginal bleeding (particularly if you are past menopause), or discharge from your vagina that is not normal for you.

Pain or pressure in the pelvic area.

Abdominal or back pain.

Bloating.

Feeling full too quickly, or difficulty eating.

A change in your bathroom habits, such as more frequent or urgent need to urinate and/or constipation.

Patient education. To see a doctor if she has symptoms

20

Endometrial cancer definition

Definition:

Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus.

It begins in the layer of cells that form the lining (endometrium) of the uterus.

The accumulating abnormal cells form a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and can separate from an initial tumor to spread elsewhere in the body (metastasize).

Endometrial cancer is sometimes called uterine cancer.

Endometrial cancer is often detected at an early stage because it frequently produces abnormal vaginal bleeding, which prompts women to see their doctors. If endometrial cancer is discovered early, removing the uterus surgically often cures endometrial cancer.

 

21

Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer screening test

There is no standard or routine screening test for endometrial cancer but

Pap test results sometimes show signs of an abnormal endometrium. 

Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) is an also useful procedure to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and bladder.

Endometrial cancer

Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) is commonly used to examine women who have abnormal vaginal bleeding.

Ultrasound wand into the vagina. It can help find a mass (tumor) in the ovary, but it can't actually tell if a mass is cancer or benign.

24

Endometrial cancer risk factors

Changes in the balance of female hormones in the body. Your ovaries make two main female hormones — estrogen and progesterone.

More years of menstruation. Starting menstruation at an early age — before age 12 —

Never having been pregnant. 

Older age

Obesity. Being obese. This may occur because excess body fat alters your body's balance of hormones.

Endometrial cancer

At this particular type of cancer women needs to be aware of signs and symptoms:

Vaginal bleeding after menopause.

Bleeding between periods.

An abnormal, watery or blood-tinged discharge from your vagina.

Pelvic pain.

References

Types of Prevention. (2018). Retrieved from https://cursos.campusvirtualsp.org/mod/tab/view.php?id= 23157

What Is Breast Cancer? | Breastcancer.org. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/understand_bc/what_is_bc?gclid= CjwKCAjwrNjcBRA3EiwAIIOvq_L1ETaEZaOF2R5RiWiUDFFjHFu5ZnWsfqBrQC_6u4ZfiEDfOGLDDBoCimAQAvD_BwE

Cervical cancer - Symptoms and causes. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cervical-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352501

Endometrial cancer - Symptoms and causes. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/endometrial-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc- 20352461

CDC - Cervical Cancer Epidemiology in the U.S. - Gynecologic Cancer Curriculum - Inside Knowledge Campaign. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/knowledge/provider-education/cervical/epidemiology.htm

References

CDC - Ovarian Cancer Epidemiology in the U.S. - Gynecologic Cancer Curriculum - Inside Knowledge Campaign. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/knowledge/provider-education/ovarian/epidemiology.htm 

Final Update Summary: Cervical Cancer: Screening - US Preventive Services Task Force. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/cervical-cancer- screening

Pap and HPV Testing. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical/pap-hpv-testing-fact-sheet# q3

Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early? | Ovarian Cancer Screening. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/ovarian-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/detection.html