PIco assignment



Student Name:

PICO and Literature Search


Scenario: Non-Pharmacological Management of Dementia: On the neurology inpatient unit, there are increasing numbers of patients with dementia. Some of the symptoms noted in these patients include agitation, wandering and even screaming and violence. A nurse on the unit was recently injured by an elderly man who attacked and hit her while she was providing nursing care to him. Your task is to propose a plan that will address the non-pharmacological management of dementia on the unit and train the nurses to provide quality care to patients with dementia.

PICO Question: In adults with Alzheimer’s disease, what is the effect of animal-assisted therapy compared to usual care on the intensity of agitation?

P: adults with Alzheimer’s disease

I: animal-assisted therapy

C: usual care

O: intensity of agitation

3 Keywords: Alzheimer’s, animal-assisted therapy, agitation

1 Synonym: dementia

1 MeSH term: psychomotor agitation


Majic, T., Gutzmann, H., Heinz, A., Lang, U. E., & Rapp, M. A. (2013). Animal-assisted therapy and agitation and depression in nursing home residents with dementia: A matched case-control trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(11), 1052-1059. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2013.03.004

Nordgren, L., & Engström, G. (2014). Effects of dog-assisted intervention on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Nursing Older People, 26(3), 31-38. https://doi.org/10.7748/nop2014.

Olsen, C., Pedersen, I., Bergland, A., Enders‐Slegers, M., Patil, G., & Ihlebæk, C. (2016). Effect of animal-assisted interventions on depression, agitation and quality of life in nursing home residents suffering from cognitive impairment or dementia: A cluster randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(12), 1312-1321. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4436

Swall, A., Ebbeskog, B., Lundh Hagelin, C., & Fagerberg, I. (2017). Stepping out of the shadows of Alzheimer’s disease: A study of older people with Alzheimer’s disease caring for a therapy dog. International Journal of Studies on Health & Well-Being, 12(1), 124-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482631.2017.1347013

Updated 8/29/2020 CJP