Pediatric nursing immunization 800 words due 1/18/2020

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N371PPT_Chapter_28.pptx

Chapter 28 Growth and Development of the School-Age Child

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Physiologic Growth of the School-Age Child

Grow an average of 2 in per year

Increase in height by at least 1 ft

Increase weight by 4 to 6 lb

Secondary sexual characteristics appear

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Organ System Maturation (School-Age Child) #1

Neurologic system: brain and skull grow very slowly; shape of head is longer; growth of facial bones changes facial proportions

Respiratory system: continues to mature with development of lungs and alveoli; respiratory rates increase; respirations diaphragmatic in nature

Cardiovascular system: blood pressure increases and pulse rate decreases

Immune system: matures to adult level around 10 years old; fewer infections experienced

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Organ System Maturation (School-Age Child) #2

Gastrointestinal system: deciduous teeth replaced by permanent teeth; fewer gastrointestinal upsets; stomach capacity increases; caloric needs are lower

Genitourinary system: bladder capacity increases (age in years plus 2 oz); prepubescence occurs

Musculoskeletal system: greater coordination and strength; muscle still immature and can easily be injured

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Piaget’s Stage of Cognitive Development of Concrete Operational Thoughts (7 to 11 Years)

Assimilates and coordinates information about the world from different dimensions

Sees things from another person’s point of view

Thinks through an action, anticipates consequences and the possibility of having to rethink the action

Stores memories of past experiences to evaluate present situations

Divides things into different sets and identifies relationships to each other

Understands the principle of conservation: matter does not change when its form changes

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Kohlberg’s Theory Moral/Spiritual Development

Interpersonal concordance

Good child versus bad child

Law and order

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Erikson’s Theory

Industry versus inferiority

Developing sense of self-worth

Developing cognitive and social skills

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Benefits of Physical Activity for the School-Age Child

Cardiovascular fitness

Weight control

Emotional tension release

Development of leadership and following skills

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Language and Communication Skills (School-Age Child)

Vocabulary expands from 8,000 to 14,000 words.

Culturally specific words are used.

Reading efficiency improves language skills.

More complex grammatical forms are used.

Development of metalinguistic awareness occurs.

Metaphors are beginning to be understood.

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Emotional and Social Developmental Issues (School-Age Child)

Temperament

Self-esteem development

Body image

School-age fears

Peer relationships

Teacher and school influences

Family influences

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Question #1

Is the following statement True or False?

The school-age child’s peer group values usually dominate when parental and peer group values come into conflict.

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Answer to Question #1

False.

The school-age child’s family values usually dominate when parental and peer group values come into conflict.

Although the peer group is influential, the family’s values usually predominate when parental and peer group values come into conflict. Even though the school-age child may question the parents’ values, the child will usually incorporate the values from parents into his or her values.

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Developmental Milestones

Coordination, balance, and rhythm improve facilitating the opportunity to ride a two-wheel bike, jump rope, dance, and participate in a variety of other sports

Myelination of the central nervous system is reflected by refinement of fine motor skills in the school-age child.

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Sensory Development of the School-Age Child

All senses are mature.

Typical child has 20/20 vision acuity.

Ocular muscular control, peripheral vision, and color discrimination are developed by age 7.

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Vision Problems Frequently Identified in School-Age Children

Amblyopia (lazy eye)

Causes

Cross eyed

Nearsightedness

Farsightedness

Astigmatism

Uncorrected refractive errors or other eye defects

Malalignment of the eyes (strabismus)

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Question #2

Is the following statement True or False?

The school nurse conducting a vision screening program identifies a child with amblyopia. This condition occurs due to malalignment of the eyes.

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Answer to Question #2

False.

Amblyopia or lazy eye, occurs due to one eye being more nearsighted, farsighted, or astigmatic than the other eye.

Malalignment of the eyes causes a condition known as strabismus.

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Cultural Influences on Growth and Development (School-Age Child)

Habits

Beliefs

Language

Values

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Safety Issues for the School-Age Child

Car safety

Pedestrian safety

Bicycle and sport safety

Fire safety

Water safety

Abuse in children

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Nutritional Needs of the Average-Weight (20 to 35 kg) School-Age Child

70 calories/kg daily (1,400 to 2,100 calories/day)

1,800 to 2,100 mL of water per day

28-g protein

800-mg calcium

Promote healthy eating habits

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Question #3

The nurse is planning a diet for a 30-kg school-age child. How many calories should the nurse include in the daily menu?

a. 1,400

b. 1,750

c. 2,100

d. 2,450

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Answer to Question #3

c. 2,100

A 30-kg school-age child should consume 2,100 calories/day.

Rational: The school-age child should consume 70 calories/kg daily (70 calories × 30 kg = 2,100 calories).

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Promoting Appropriate Discipline (School-Age Child)

Children learn the natural and logical consequences of discipline.

Parents should teach children rules established by the family, values, and social rules of conduct.

Discipline should focus on the development of the child.

Parents should discipline with praise.

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Factors Determining Type and Amount of Discipline

Developmental level of both the child and the parents

Severity of the misbehavior

Established rules of the family

Temperament of the child

Response of the child to rewards

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Developmental Concerns (School-Age Child)

Television and video games

School phobia

Latchkey children

Stealing, lying, cheating

Bullying

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Promoting Sleep and Rest (School-Age Child)

12 hours of sleep required

Should have bedtime expectations and wake-up times

Night terrors and sleepwalking may occur but should resolve by age 8 to 10 years

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