Tiger conservation areas in Nepal: investigating spatio-temporal patterns in the risk from fire hazard

profileRaymond94
GISEnvMngt_7_4.zip

Assignment_subsetNepal/Assignment_fireconservation.pdf

GIS for Environmental Management

Tiger conservation areas in Nepal: investigating spatio-temporal

patterns in the risk from fire hazard

Background

Fire hazard in Nepal provides significant risk to conservation of threatened species (Barber-Meyer et

l. 2010). In 2012, nearly 70% of the Bardiya National Park in Nepal was destroyed from fire; this park

provided prime conserved habitat for tiger populations1. Fires occur frequently with a large

proportion deliberately initiated by grazers, poachers, hunters and non-timber forest product

collectors; some as a result of negligence or by accident. Fire provides a valuable method for

landscape management to prepare fields for crop cultivation as it is one of the least expensive land

clearing methods. However, when such methods are not managed carefully under strict control, fire

can spread and becomes a threat to protected areas, habitats and species. The Department of

National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC) manages protected Areas in Nepal, which in turn

is part of the Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation. These protected areas are home to some of

the world’s most endangered species. Increasing fire hazard (due to population expansion and a

warmer/drier environment) is adding unprecedented pressure on threatened species (Carter et al.

2013), such as Panthera tigris tigris, the Bengal tiger which is native to this part of the world. Fire is

one of the most prominent causes of forest destruction in Nepal where fire is traditionally linked

with the rural livelihoods of communities. Tropical forests of the Terai (Nepali lowlands) consitute

prime habitat for the Bengal tiger.

Several environmental factors are thought to influence the occurrence and likely spread of fire. You

should read the literature to ascertain which factors (current and future) are important for Nepal,

and which you suppose are important for your investigation relative to the datasets which have

been provided (e.g. Castro and Chuvieco 1996; Jaiswal et al. 2002; Barbosa et al. 2010).

Scenario

In this assignment, your task is to investigate the historical relationship between fire occurrence and

environmental factors likely to influence its occurrence. You should also examine the impact of fire

on tiger habitat from 2000-2013. You should use the tools in ArcGIS spatial analyst to aid your

analysis. You may find it helpful to divide the fire data set into separate map layers for different sub-

periods, and then for each sub-period look at the pattern of fire relative to tiger habitat and

landscape characteristics that could influence its occurrence.

You may wish to further your ArcGIS skillset and explore using the spatial statistics tools given that

fire time-series data have been provided, e.g. have fire events become more or less clustered over

time? Once you have explored the temporal and spatial characteristics of fire occurrence between

2000 and 2013, you should discuss the implications of your findings for management of the tiger

population in relation to fire risk.

The Data

Data are provided for Nepal.

1 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17937620

GIS for Environmental Management

 FIRMS MODIS fire/hotspots observations (2000-2013)

https://earthdata.nasa.gov/data/near-real-time-data/faq/firms#firms20

(see ‘What are the attributes/fields of the active fire data?’ in FAQ)

 ICUN threatened species – coverage of known tiger habitat

http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/spatial-data

 ASTER GDEM 30m resolution digital elevation model

 FAO land cover

 Existing national park conservation areas

 Major settlement locations

You may download and use additional data if you wish to but it is not a requirement of the

assignment.

Assignment Criteria

Your assignment must be no longer than 1800 words (and conform to AU word count policy). Within

this you should include the following information:

1. An introduction to factors which are likely to spatially influence fire risk to tiger habitat in

Nepal

2. A quantitative assessment as to what environmental factors are linked with fire events in

Nepal (processing the data provided) and how these events vary temporally

3. An assessment of how fire has affected tiger habitat between 2000 and 2013

4. Provide a critical appraisal of your analysis highlighting (i) the limitations of analysing the

temporal data within GIS (ii) suggestions for how more sophisticated methods could be used

to map predicted risk, and (iii) any implications for management of tiger habitat in relation

to fire risk

References

This does not form an exhaustive list – there are many more journal articles which will be of

relevance to your investigation depending upon how you wish to focus your analysis.

Barber-Meyer SM, Jnawali SR, Karki JB, Khanal P, Lohani S, Long B, MacKenzie DI, Pandav B, Pradhan

NMB, Shrestha R, Subedi R, Thapa G, ThapaK,Wikramanayake E, 2012. Influence of prey

depletion and human disturbance on tiger occupancy in Nepal. Journal of Zoology 289 10-18

Barbosa MR, Seoane JCS, Buratto MG, Dias LS, Raivel JPC, Martins FL, 2010. Forest Fire Alert System:

a Geo Web GIS prioritization model considering land susceptibility and hotspots – a case study

in the Carajás National Forest, Brazilian Amazon. International Journal of Geographical

Information Science 24 873-901

Carter NH, Gurung B, Vina AS, Campa H, Karki JB, Liu J, 2013. Assessing spatiotemporal changes in

tiger habitat across different land management regimes. Ecosphere 4 (Article 124)

Castro R, Chuvieco E, 1998. Modelling forest fire danger from geographic information systems,

Geocarto International 13 15-23

GIS for Environmental Management

Jaiswal RK, Mukherjee S, Raju KD, Sazena R, 2002. Forest fire risk zone mapping from satellite

imagery and GIS. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 4 1-10

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000001.freelist

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000001.gdbindexes

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000001.gdbtable

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000001.gdbtablx

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000001.TablesByName.atx

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000002.gdbtable

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000002.gdbtablx

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000003.gdbindexes

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000003.gdbtable

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000003.gdbtablx

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000004.CatItemsByPhysicalName.atx

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000004.CatItemsByType.atx

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000004.FDO_UUID.atx

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000004.freelist

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000004.gdbindexes

Assignment_subsetNepal/nepal_fire_tigers.gdb/a00000004.gdbtable

��������Ko������'z������”|������(�������R��������������O�b�j�e�c�t�I�D������U�U�I�D���&��T�y�p�e�� &��N�a�m�e��� ������P�h�y�s�i�c�a�l�N�a�m�e��� ������P�a�t�h����������D�a�t�a�s�e�t�S�u�b�t�y�p�e�1�������D�a�t�a�s�e�t�S�u�b�t�y�p�e�2�������D�a�t�a�s�e�t�I�n�f�o�1���ÿ������D�a�t�a�s�e�t�I�n�f�o�2���ÿ������U�R�L���ÿ����� D�e�f�i�n�i�t�i�o�n����� D�o�c�u�m�e�n�t�a�t�i�o�n������I�t�e�m�I�n�f�o����� P�r�o�p�e�r�t�i�e�s�������D�e�f�a�u�l�t�s������S�h�a�p�e�����"�G�E�O�G�C�S�[�"�G�C�S�_�W�G�S�_�1�9�8�4�"�,�D�A�T�U�M�[�"�D�_�W�G�S�_�1�9�8�4�"�,�S�P�H�E�R�O�I�D�[�"�W�G�S�_�1�9�8�4�"�,�6�3�7�8�1�3�7�.�0�,�2�9�8�.�2�5�7�2�2�3�5�6�3�]�]�,�P�R�I�M�E�M�[�"�G�r�e�e�n�w�i�c�h�"�,�0�.�0�]�,�U�N�I�T�[�"�D�e�g�r�e�e�"�,�0�.�0�1�7�4�5�3�2�9�2�5�1�9�9�4�3�3�]�]�������€fÀ�����€VÀ����€„.A�����jøÀ�����ˆÃ@�����jøÀ�����ˆÃ@�íµ ÷ÆÀ>ü©ñÒMbP?ü©ñÒMbP?�����€fÀ�����€VÀ�����€[email protected]�����€[email protected]�����ú~j¼t“ˆ?š™™™™™Ù?������(@+���x÷ˆ¡ËÀÍü�O‰6åË�hýïo>xóÊe�Eƒ�Î9…ÚÓ±���\�����°���xöG3¥Ül�¯Cœ#^f ÓV��þsÆ€[email protected]…2 u]Øü� Workspace WORKSPACE��ò�<DEWorkspace xsi:type='typens:DEWorkspace' xmlns:xsi='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance' xmlns:xs='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema' xmlns:typens='http://www.esri.com/schemas/ArcGIS/10.1'><CatalogPath>\</CatalogPath><Name></Name><ChildrenExpanded>false</ChildrenExpanded><WorkspaceType>esriLocalDatabaseWorkspace</WorkspaceType><WorkspaceFactoryProgID></WorkspaceFactoryProgID><ConnectionString></ConnectionString><ConnectionInfo xsi:nil='true'/><Domains xsi:type='typens:ArrayOfDomain'></Domains><MajorVersion>3</MajorVersion><MinorVersion>0</MinorVersion><BugfixVersion>0</BugfixVersion><Realm></Realm></DEWorkspace>����“ïÿÿxÔ)¢��>ÔÁK—4€^{UÛd£gÖ^©œ¢D€)Ù[ò7�¹�DEM�DEM�\DEM�å�<DERasterDataset xsi:type='typens:DERasterDataset' xmlns:xsi='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance' xmlns:xs='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema' xmlns:typens='http://www.esri.com/schemas/ArcGIS/10.1'><CatalogPath>\DEM</CatalogPath><Name>DEM</Name><ChildrenExpanded>false</ChildrenExpanded><DatasetType>esriDTRasterDataset</DatasetType><DSID>24</DSID><Versioned>false</Versioned><CanVersion>false</CanVersion><ConfigurationKeyword></ConfigurationKeyword><RequiredGeodatabaseClientVersion>10.0</RequiredGeodatabaseClientVersion><Extent xsi:type='typens:EnvelopeN'><XMin>83.92051696738406</XMin><YMin>26.980493544841067</YMin><XMax>85.795794746662125</XMax><YMax>28.385215768187038</YMax><SpatialReference xsi:type='typens:GeographicCoordinateSystem'><WKT>GEOGCS[&quot;GCS_WGS_1984&quot;,DATUM[&quot;D_WGS_1984&quot;,SPHEROID[&quot;WGS_1984&quot;,6378137.0,298.257223563]],PRIMEM[&quot;Greenwich&quot;,0.0],UNIT[&quot;Degree&quot;,0.0174532925199433],AUTHORITY[&quot;EPSG&quot;,4326]]</WKT><XOrigin>-400</XOrigin><YOrigin>-400</YOrigin><XYScale>11258999068426.24</XYScale><ZOrigin>-100000</ZOrigin><ZScale>10000</ZScale><MOrigin>-100000</MOrigin><MScale>10000</MScale><XYTolerance>8.983152841195215e-009</XYTolerance><ZTolerance>0.001</ZTolerance><MTolerance>0.001</MTolerance><HighPrecision>true</HighPrecision><LeftLongitude>-180</LeftLongitude><WKID>4326</WKID><LatestWKID>4326</LatestWKID></SpatialReference></Extent><SpatialReference xsi:type='typens:GeographicCoordinateSystem'><WKT>GEOGCS[&quot;GCS_WGS_1984&quot;,DATUM[&quot;D_WGS_1984&quot;,SPHEROID[&quot;WGS_1984&quot;,6378137.0,298.257223563]],PRIMEM[&quot;Greenwich&quot;,0.0],UNIT[&quot;Degree&quot;,0.0174532925199433],AUTHORITY[&quot;EPSG&quot;,4326]]</WKT><XOrigin>-400</XOrigin><YOrigin>-400</YOrigin><XYScale>11258999068426.24</XYScale><ZOrigin>-100000</ZOrigin><ZScale>10000</ZScale><MOrigin>-100000</MOrigin><MScale>10000</MScale><XYTolerance>8.983152841195215e-009</XYTolerance><ZTolerance>0.001</ZTolerance><MTolerance>0.001</MTolerance><HighPrecision>true</HighPrecision><LeftLongitude>-180</LeftLongitude><WKID>4326</WKID><LatestWKID>4326</LatestWKID></SpatialReference><Format></Format><CompressionType></CompressionType><SensorType></SensorType><BandCount>1</BandCount><Permanent>true</Permanent><StorageDef xsi:type='typens:RasterStorageDef'><CompressionQuality>1</CompressionQuality><CompressionType>esriRasterCompressionLZ77</CompressionType><PyramidLevel>0</PyramidLevel><PyramidResampleType>RSP_NearestNeighbor</PyramidResampleType><Tiled>true</Tiled><TileHeight>128</TileHeight><TileWidth>128</TileWidth><Origin xsi:type='typens:PointN'><X>83.920516967384003</X><Y>26.980493544841</Y><SpatialReference xsi:type='typens:GeographicCoordinateSystem'><WKT>GEOGCS[&quot;GCS_WGS_1984&quot;,DATUM[&quot;D_WGS_1984&quot;,SPHEROID[&quot;WGS_1984&quot;,6378137.0,298.257223563]],PRIMEM[&quot;Greenwich&quot;,0.0],UNIT[&quot;Degree&quot;,0.0174532925199433],AUTHORITY[&quot;EPSG&quot;,4326]]</WKT><XOrigin>-400</XOrigin><YOrigin>-400</YOrigin><XYScale>11258999068426.24</XYScale><ZOrigin>-100000</ZOrigin><ZScale>10000</ZScale><MOrigin>-100000</MOrigin><MScale>10000</MScale><XYTolerance>8.983152841195215e-009</XYTolerance><ZTolerance>0.001</ZTolerance><MTolerance>0.001</MTolerance><HighPrecision>true</HighPrecision><LeftLongitude>-180</LeftLongitude><WKID>4326</WKID><LatestWKID>4326</LatestWKID></SpatialReference></Origin><CellSizeX>0.00027777777799999997</CellSizeX><CellSizeY>0.00027777777799999997</CellSizeY><CreationOptions></CreationOptions></StorageDef></DERasterDataset>¡� <metadata xml:lang="en"><Esri><CreaDate>20141103</CreaDate><CreaTime>19021400</CreaTime><ArcGISFormat>1.0</ArcGISFormat><SyncOnce>TRUE</SyncOnce><DataProperties><lineage><Process ToolSource="c:\program files\arcgis\desktop10.1\ArcToolbox\Toolboxes\Spatial Analyst Tools.tbx\ExtractByMask" Date="20141103" Time="190214">ExtractByMask nepal_dem Subset\subset "C:\Users\Ellie\Documents\Teaching\MSc Teaching\GEOG6034 - GIS for EM\New Assignment 2\PatternAnalysis\nepal_fire_tigers.gdb\DEM"</Process></lineage></DataProperties></Esri></metadata> ����.���…·ì}Žöã7κr²ÞU…îØû�ŽìÇo�²¼«�Žõä���ò¼«�Îõä��'þÿÿYOrigin>-400</YOrigin><XYScale>11258999068426.238</XYScale><ZOrigin>-100000</ZOrigin><ZScale>10000</ZScale><MOrigin>-100000</MOrigin><MScale>10000</MScale><XYTolerance>8.983152841195215e-009</XYTolerance><ZTolerance>0.001</ZTolerance><MTolerance>0.001</MTolerance><HighPrecision>true</HighPrecision><LeftLongitude>-180</LeftLongitude><WKID>4326</WKID><LatestWKID>4326</LatestWKID></SpatialReference></DEFeatureClassInfo>����0���黂|¡³¿7ûÏí�‡Œë�©÷„ø�¡æþn�‡˜Ö�»ŸÛ���ǘÖ�ûŸÛ��-üÿÿiGeometryPoint</ShapeType><ShapeFieldName>Shape</ShapeFieldName><HasM>false</HasM><HasZ>false</HasZ><HasSpatialIndex>true</HasSpatialIndex><AreaFieldName></AreaFieldName><LengthFieldName></LengthFieldName><Extent xsi:nil='true'/><SpatialReference xsi:type='typens:GeographicCoordinateSystem'><WKT>GEOGCS[&quot;GCS_WGS_1984&quot;,DATUM[&quot;D_WGS_1984&quot;,SPHEROID[&quot;WGS_1984&quot;,6378137.0,298.257223563]],PRIMEM[&quot;Greenwich&quot;,0.0],UNIT[&quot;Degree&quot;,0.0174532925199433],AUTHORITY[&quot;EPSG&quot;,4326]]</WKT><XOrigin>-400</XOrigin><YOrigin>-400</YOrigin><XYScale>11258999068426.238</XYScale><ZOrigin>-100000</ZOrigin><ZScale>10000</ZScale><MOrigin>-100000</MOrigin><MScale>10000</MScale><XYTolerance>8.983152841195215e-009</XYTolerance><ZTolerance>0.001</ZTolerance><MTolerance>0.001</MTolerance><HighPrecision>true</HighPrecision><LeftLongitude>-180</LeftLongitude><WKID>4326</WKID><LatestWKID>4326</LatestWKID></SpatialReference></DEFeatureClassInfo>����¼ðÿÿ@ô©.¹®øÐH‹�Lô’ôÉt xsp,…�Jž",ìê[›ú�Main_Settlements�MAIN_SETTLEMENTS�\Main_Settlements���������Shape�°�<DEFeatureClassInfo xsi:type='typens:DEFeatureClassInfo' xmlns:xsi='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance' xmlns:xs='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema' xmlns:typens='http://www.esri.com/schemas/ArcGIS/10.1'><CatalogPath>\Main_Settlements</CatalogPath><Name>Main_Settlements</Name><ChildrenExpanded>false</ChildrenExpanded><DatasetType>esriDTFeatureClass</DatasetType><DSID>19</DSID><Versioned>false</Versioned><CanVersion>false</CanVersion><ConfigurationKeyword></ConfigurationKeyword><RequiredGeodatabaseClientVersion>10.0</RequiredGeodatabaseClientVersion><HasOID>true</HasOID><OIDFieldName>OBJECTID</OIDFieldName><GPFieldInfoExs xsi:type='typens:ArrayOfGPFieldInfoEx'><GPFieldInfoEx xsi:type='typens:GPFieldInfoEx'><Name>OBJECTID</Name><AliasName>OBJECTID</AliasName><ModelName>OBJECTID</ModelName><FieldType>esriFieldTypeOID</FieldType><IsNullable>false</IsNullable><Required>true</Required></GPFieldInfoEx><GPFieldInfoEx xsi:type='typens:GPFieldInfoEx'><Name>Shape</Name><AliasName>Shape</AliasName><ModelName>Shape</ModelName><FieldType>esriFieldTypeGeometry</FieldType><IsNullable>true</IsNullable><Required>true</Required></GPFieldInfoEx><GPFieldInfoEx xsi:type='typens:GPFieldInfoEx'><Name>VDCNAME</Name><AliasName>VDCNAME</AliasName><ModelName>VDCNAME</ModelName><FieldType>esriFieldTypeString</FieldType><IsNullable>true</IsNullable></GPFieldInfoEx><GPFieldInfoEx xsi:type='typens:GPFieldInfoEx'><Name>TOTALHOUSE</Name><AliasName>TOTALHOUSE</AliasName><ModelName>TOTALHOUSE</ModelName><FieldType>esriFieldTypeInteger</FieldType><IsNullable>true</IsNullable></GPFieldInfoEx><GPFieldInfoEx xsi:type='typens:GPFieldInfoEx'><Name>TOTALPOPLN</Name><AliasName>TOTALPOPLN</AliasName><ModelName>TOTALPOPLN</ModelName><FieldType>esriFieldTypeInteger</FieldType><IsNullable>true</IsNullable></GPFieldInfoEx></GPFieldInfoExs><CLSID>{52353152-891A-11D0-BEC6-00805F7C4268}</CLSID><EXTCLSID></EXTCLSID><RelationshipClassNames xsi:type='typens:Names'></RelationshipClassNames><AliasName></AliasName><ModelName></ModelName><HasGlobalID>false</HasGlobalID><GlobalIDFieldName></GlobalIDFieldName><RasterFieldName></RasterFieldName><ExtensionProperties xsi:type='typens:PropertySet'><PropertyArray xsi:type='typens:ArrayOfPropertySetProperty'></PropertyArray></ExtensionProperties><ControllerMemberships xsi:type='typens:ArrayOfControllerMembership'></ControllerMemberships><EditorTrackingEnabled>false</EditorTrackingEnabled><CreatorFieldName></CreatorFieldName><CreatedAtFieldName></CreatedAtFieldName><EditorFieldName></EditorFieldName><EditedAtFieldName></EditedAtFieldName><IsTimeInUTC>true</IsTimeInUTC><FeatureType>esriFTSimple</FeatureType><ShapeType>esriGeometryPoint</ShapeType><ShapeFieldName>Shape</ShapeFieldName><HasM>false</HasM><HasZ>false</HasZ><HasSpatialIndex>true</HasSpatialIndex><AreaFieldName></AreaFieldName><LengthFieldName></LengthFieldName><Extent xsi:nil='true'/><SpatialReference xsi:type='typens:GeographicCoordinateSystem'><WKT>GEOGCS[&quot;GCS_WGS_1984&quot;,DATUM[&quot;D_WGS_1984&quot;,SPHEROID[&quot;WGS_1984&quot;,6378137.0,298.257223563]],PRIMEM[&quot;Greenwich&quot;,0.0],UNIT[&quot;Degree&quot;,0.0174532925199433],AUTHORITY[&quot;EPSG&quot;,4326]]</WKT><XOrigin>-400</XOrigin><YOrigin>-400</YOrigin><XYScale>11258999068426.238</XYScale><ZOrigin>-100000</ZOrigin><ZScale>10000</ZScale><MOrigin>-100000</MOrigin><MScale>10000</MScale><XYTolerance>8.983152841195215e-009</XYTolerance><ZTolerance>0.001</ZTolerance><MTolerance>0.001</MTolerance><HighPrecision>true</HighPrecision><LeftLongitude>-180</LeftLongitude><WKID>4326</WKID><LatestWKID>4326</LatestWKID></SpatialReference></DEFeatureClassInfo>§� <metadata xml:lang="en"><Esri><CreaDate>20141103</CreaDate><CreaTime>16550900</CreaTime><ArcGISFormat>1.0</ArcGISFormat><SyncOnce>TRUE</SyncOnce></Esri></metadata> �����ÿÿÿerance><ZTolerance>0.001</ZTolerance><MTolerance>0.001</MTolerance><HighPrecision>true</HighPrecision><LeftLongitude>-180</LeftLongitude><WKID>4326</WKID><LatestWKID>4326</LatestWKID></SpatialReference></DEFeatureClassInfo>�����üÿÿnce><ZTolerance>0.001</ZTolerance><MTolerance>0.001</MTolerance><HighPrecision>true</HighPrecision><LeftLongitude>-180</LeftLongitude><WKID>4326</WKID><LatestWKID>4326</LatestWKID></SpatialReference></Extent><SpatialReference …