cndjkon

profileenzo
FA18_KNH125_10.Comm.Mental.Health.pptx

Community Mental Health

Lecture 10

1

1

Overview

Know what is meant by Mental Health, Mental Disorder, Mental Illness, and DSM-V

Understand examples of mental disorders

Emphasis on stress & suicide

Understand mental health challenges

Understand goals of mental disorder treatment

2

2

Introduction

Mental health: Individual’s social and emotional well-being

Mental disorders: Health conditions characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior associated with distress and/or impaired functioning (or, disruption of social/emotional well-being)

Mental illness: All diagnosable mental disorders

Diagnosis through DSM-V

3

3

Introduction

Mental health: Individual’s social and emotional well-being

Mental disorders: Health conditions characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior associated with distress and/or impaired functioning (or, disruption of social/emotional well-being)

Mental illness: All diagnosable mental disorders

Diagnosis through DSM-V

4

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (“DSM-V” or “DSM-5”)

Most influential book in mental health

Published by American Psychiatric Association (APA)

Classifies disorders based on behavioral signs and symptoms rather than definitive tests or measurements of brain or another body system

4

Introduction

Causes of disability for all ages combined (U.S., Canada, & Western Europe, 2000)

5

5

Mental Disorders: Overview

May arise from various causes:

Poor prenatal care; postnatal environment; genetics; environmental factors; brain function impairment; substance abuse; maladaptive family functioning; stress

Various types of mental disorders exist

Focus on some well-known disorders in this class

6

Mental Disorders: Overview

May arise from various causes:

Poor prenatal care; postnatal environment; genetics; environmental factors; brain function impairment; substance abuse; maladaptive family functioning; stress

Various types of mental disorders exist

Focus on some well-known disorders in this class

7

Stress is a contemporary problem in mental health

Stress: Individual’s psychological and physiological response to real or perceived stressors

Acute vs. chronic (by amount of time)

Eustress vs. distress (by nature of influence)

Stressor: Any real or perceived physical, social, or psychological event or stimulus that causes our bodies to react or respond (can be internal/external)

Mental Disorders: Overview

May arise from various causes:

Poor prenatal care; postnatal environment; genetics; environmental factors; brain function impairment; substance abuse; maladaptive family functioning; stress

Various types of mental disorders exist

Focus on some well-known disorders in this class

8

Individuals typically go through three stages when responding to stressors, known as general adaptation syndrome

General adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Alarm (initiate “fight or flight” response)

Resistance (sustained high resistance to stress)

Exhaustion (Body more susceptible to disease and sickness)

Mental Disorders

Anxiety disorder

Major depression

Bipolar disorder

Phobias (http://phobialist.com/)

Includes social phobia

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Collection of symptoms that occur as a delayed response to a serious trauma.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

Characterized by recurrent, unwanted thoughts and repetitive behaviors.

9

Mental Disorders

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

Neurobehavioral disorder associated with hyperactivity or distraction.

Schizophrenia

Biological disease characterized by alterations of the senses

Other compulsion? (Hoarding)

Sleep disorders? (FFI)

10

10

Mental Disorders

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

Neurobehavioral disorder associated with hyperactivity or distraction.

Schizophrenia

Biological disease characterized by alterations of the senses

Other compulsion? (Hoarding)

Sleep disorders? (FFI)

11

11

Mental Disorders

Suicide

Led to an unexpected rise in death rates among middle-aged white Americans between 1999 and 2014

Currently the second leading cause of death on college campuses.

Suicide affects persons attempting/committing suicide PLUS friends and families of those persons.

Difficult to spot or address warning signs; need to talk about it for prevention

12

Mental Health Challenges

Experiences of people with serious mental illness have improved significantly in past 50 years

Challenges remain:

Mental health stigma

How to provide services to the homeless

Resolving problems of those with mental illness who are incarcerated

13

13

Mental Health Stigma

Are these accurate description of a typical mental patient?

14

Mental Health Challenges

14

Mental Health Stigma

Are these accurate description of a typical mental patient?

15

Mental Health Challenges

15

Mental Health Challenges

Homelessness

2.1 million adults experience homelessness over the course of a year

80% temporarily homeless, 10% episodically homeless, 10% chronically homeless

About half of all homeless adults have substance use disorders, major depression, and other co-occurring mental illness

Successful interventions include provision of housing and services they need

16

16

Mental Health Challenges

Mental Health Care in Jails and Prisons

Rates of serious mental illness in U.S. correctional facilities are three to four times the rates in the general population

Correctional facilities designed to confine and punish, not to treat disease

Lack of space, adequate number of qualified treatment personnel, and timely access to services

Once released back into community, more likely to commit crime if untreated

17

17

Prevention of Mental Disorders

Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention applicable to mental disorders

Primary: reduces incidence of mental illness and related problems

Secondary: reduces prevalence by shortening duration of episodes

Tertiary: treatment and rehabilitation

18

18

Treatment of Mental Disorders

Goals of mental disorder treatment is to promote lifestyle/behaviors that make a person’s life better

Reduce symptoms

Improve functioning (personal & social)

Develop and strengthen coping skills

Use of…(1) Psychopharmacology; (2) Psychotherapy; (3) Technology; (4) Self-Help Groups; (5) Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services

19

19

Additional Resources

Student Counseling Service @ Division of Student Affairs, Miami University

Professional, confidential, & inexpensive

Free initial consultation + up to 3 free counseling

Reduced/waived fee available upon request

Visit their website, or call: 513-529-4634

20

20

Additional Resources

TED talk: What’s so Funny about Mental Illness?

21

21

Take-Away Points

22

Know the definitions & highlighted concepts.

Special focus on stress as a mental health problem, including the distinction between eustress (+) or distress (-); acute or chronic stress.

Special focus on the General adaptation syndrome.

Understand how myths/stigma surrounding mental disorders are inaccurate.

Know purpose and types of mental disorder treatments.

22

Announcement

23

Reminder: Assignment #4 due this Saturday

23