# Sampling Strategy and Codebook for Content Analysis

Joshlove
Exampleofacodebook.pdf

be​ ​coded​ ​more​ ​than​ ​once,​ ​multiple​ ​people​ ​will​ ​code​ ​the​ ​same​ ​article;​ ​an​ ​average​ ​of​ ​different​ ​codes​ ​of the​ ​same​ ​article​ ​will​ ​be​ ​the​ ​number​ ​that’s​ ​recorded.

Codebook Measures:​​ ​One​ ​article

Codes:​​ ​1.​ ​Positivity​ ​2.​ ​Valence​ ​of​ ​headline​ ​3.​ ​Presence​ ​of​ ​counterargument​ ​4.​ ​Headline’s representativeness​ ​of​ ​the​ ​article​ ​5.​ ​Application​ ​of​ ​statistics

1. Positivity ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Conceptual​ ​Definition​-​ ​Positivity​ ​is​ ​when​ ​someone​ ​shows​ ​support​ ​for​ ​an​ ​issue

or​ ​cause. ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Operational​ ​Definition​-​ ​Positivity​ ​in​ ​an​ ​article​ ​can​ ​be​ ​measured​ ​by​ ​looking​ ​at​ ​the ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​favorability​ ​or​ ​support​ ​it​ ​shows​ ​towards​ ​an​ ​issue​ ​or​ ​cause.

x=0​ ​(Absence​ ​of​ ​Positivity) An​ ​article​ ​without​ ​positivity​ ​for​ ​Bernie​ ​Sanders’​ ​college​ ​tuition​ ​plan​ ​will​ ​display unfavorable​ ​rhetoric.​ ​For​ ​example,​ ​an​ ​article​ ​with​ ​no​ ​positivity​ ​for​ ​Sanders’​ ​free​ ​college proposal​ ​might​ ​quote​ ​people​ ​who​ ​don’t​ ​want​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​higher​ ​taxes​ ​for​ ​students​ ​that​ ​they​ ​might perceive​ ​as​ ​lazy.​ ​In​ ​other​ ​words,​ ​negative​ ​rhetoric​ ​towards​ ​Sanders’​ ​proposal​ ​would​ ​qualify the​ ​article​ ​as​ ​being​ ​absent​ ​of​ ​positivity. y=1​ ​(Presence​ ​of​ ​Positivity) An​ ​article​ ​with​ ​positivity​ ​towards​ ​Bernie​ ​Sanders’​ ​college​ ​tuition​ ​plan​ ​will​ ​talk​ ​about​ ​his​ ​plan​ ​in a​ ​favorable​ ​light.​ ​For​ ​example,​ ​an​ ​article​ ​that​ ​has​ ​positivity​ ​for​ ​Sanders’​ ​proposal​ ​of​ ​free college​ ​might​ ​cite​ ​direct​ ​experiences​ ​from​ ​college​ ​students​ ​who​ ​are​ ​in​ ​massive​ ​debt,​ ​and advocate​ ​for​ ​the​ ​alleviation​ ​of​ ​their​ ​financial​ ​situations. ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​2.​ ​Valence​ ​of​ ​headline​ ​​(Entman,​ ​2010) ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Conceptual​ ​Definition​-​ ​The​ ​valence​ ​of​ ​a​ ​headline​ ​is​ ​the​ ​degree​ ​to​ ​which​ ​it’s​ ​vocabulary

​ ​​ ​​ ​frames​ ​a​ ​story​ ​(Entman,​ ​2010). ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Operational​ ​Definition​-​ ​The​ ​valence​ ​of​ ​a​ ​headline​ ​can​ ​be​ ​measured​ ​by​ ​the​ ​language​ ​used in

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​the​ ​title,​ ​which​ ​can​ ​hold​ ​positive​ ​or​ ​negative​ ​connotations. x=0​ ​(Negative​ ​Valence) A​ ​headline​ ​with​ ​a​ ​negative​ ​valence​ ​in​ ​an​ ​article​ ​about​ ​Bernie​ ​Sanders’​ ​plan​ ​for​ ​free​ ​college will​ ​use​ ​unfavorable​ ​language.​ ​For​ ​example,​ ​a​ ​headline​ ​with​ ​a​ ​negative​ ​valence​ ​may represent​ ​Sanders’​ ​plan​ ​with​ ​the​ ​words​ ​“impractical”​ ​or​ ​“far-fetched,”​ ​thus​ ​promoting​ ​a negative​ ​spin​ ​or​ ​bias.

y=1​ ​(Positive​ ​Valence) A​ ​headline​ ​with​ ​a​ ​positive​ ​valence​ ​in​ ​an​ ​article​ ​about​ ​Bernie​ ​Sanders’​ ​plan​ ​involving​ ​free

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​college​ ​will​ ​use​ ​supportive​ ​language.​ ​For​ ​example,​ ​a​ ​headline​ ​with​ ​a​ ​positive​ ​valence​ ​may state​ ​that​ ​Sanders’​ ​plan​ ​​ ​​ ​is​ ​beneficial​ ​or​ ​advantageous​ ​to​ ​all​ ​students,​ ​promoting​ ​a​ ​positive spin​ ​or​ ​bias.

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​3.​ ​Presence​ ​of​ ​counterargument ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Conceptual​ ​Definition​-​ ​A​ ​counterargument​ ​is​ ​when​ ​another​ ​point​ ​of​ ​view​ ​is​ ​presented​ ​to

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​the​ ​majority​ ​opinion​ ​on​ ​a​ ​certain​ ​issue​ ​or​ ​topic. ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Operational​ ​Definition​- The​ ​presence​ ​of​ ​a​ ​counterargument​ ​in​ ​an​ ​article​ ​can​ ​be ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​measured​ ​by​ ​seeing​ ​if​ ​more​ ​than​ ​one​ ​point​ ​of​ ​view​ ​are​ ​applied​ ​to​ ​an​ ​issue. x=0​ ​(Absence​ ​of​ ​Counterargument) A​ ​counterargument​ ​is​ ​absent​ ​in​ ​an​ ​article​ ​when​ ​only​ ​one​ ​point​ ​of​ ​view​ ​is​ ​presented.​ ​For example,​ ​if​ ​an​ ​article​ ​about​ ​Bernie​ ​Sanders​ ​only​ ​contains​ ​a​ ​point​ ​of​ ​view​ ​that​ ​is​ ​against​ ​his proposal​ ​of​ ​free​ ​college,​ ​no​ ​counterargument​ ​is​ ​present. y=1​ ​(Presence​ ​of​ ​Counterargument) A​ ​counterargument​ ​is​ ​present​ ​in​ ​an​ ​article​ ​when​ ​both​ ​points​ ​of​ ​view​ ​on​ ​an​ ​issue​ ​are​ ​presented

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​or​ ​addressed.​ ​For​ ​example,​ ​if​ ​an​ ​article​ ​about​ ​Bernie​ ​Sanders​ ​presents​ ​an​ ​argument​ ​in​ ​favor of​ ​his​ ​proposal​ ​for​ ​free​ ​college,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​that​ ​others​ ​don’t​ ​think​ ​his​ ​plan​ ​is​ ​practical

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​because​ ​it​ ​would​ ​put​ ​too​ ​much​ ​of​ ​a​ ​burden​ ​on​ ​taxpayers,​ ​a​ ​counterargument​ ​is​ ​present.

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​4.​ ​Headline’s​ ​representativeness​ ​of​ ​the​ ​article ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Conceptual​ ​Definition​-​ ​The​ ​degree​ ​to​ ​which​ ​a​ ​headline​ ​represents​ ​the​ ​subsequent

story​ ​is​ ​a​ ​headline’s​ ​representativeness. ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Operational​ ​Definition​-​ ​A​ ​headlines​ ​representativeness​ ​of​ ​an​ ​article​ ​can​ ​be​ ​measured

by​ ​the​ ​positive​ ​and​ ​negative​ ​syntax​ ​used​ ​in​ ​the​ ​headline​ ​and​ ​article.​ ​Positive congruency/representativeness​ ​will​ ​have​ ​a​ ​matched​ ​tone​ ​between​ ​the​ ​headline​ ​and article.

x=0​ ​(Negative​ ​Congruency) A​ ​headline​ ​with​ ​negative​ ​congruency​ ​to​ ​an​ ​article​ ​about​ ​Bernie​ ​Sanders’​ ​proposal​ ​for​ ​free college​ ​will​ ​misrepresent​ ​the​ ​body​ ​of​ ​the​ ​text.​ ​For​ ​example,​ ​if​ ​a​ ​headline​ ​says​ ​that​ ​Sanders’ proposal​ ​of​ ​free​ ​college​ ​increases​ ​taxes,​ ​while​ ​the​ ​actual​ ​article​ ​says​ ​nothing​ ​about​ ​a​ ​rise​ ​in taxes,​ ​the​ ​headline​ ​is​ ​negatively​ ​congruent​ ​to​ ​the​ ​article.​ ​The​ ​same​ ​goes​ ​for​ ​the​ ​tone​ ​of​ ​the headline.​ ​If​ ​the​ ​article​ ​has​ ​a​ ​positive​ ​tone​ ​while​ ​the​ ​headline​ ​is​ ​more​ ​negative​ ​in​ ​nature,​ ​negative congruency​ ​is​ ​present.

y=1​ ​(Positive​ ​Congruency) A​ ​headline​ ​with​ ​positive​ ​congruency​ ​to​ ​an​ ​article​ ​about​ ​Bernie​ ​Sanders’​ ​proposal​ ​for​ ​free college​ ​will​ ​accurately​ ​represent​ ​the​ ​entirety​ ​of​ ​text​ ​in​ ​the​ ​article.​ ​For​ ​example,​ ​when​ ​a​ ​headline mentioning​ ​the​ ​alleviation​ ​of​ ​student​ ​debt​ ​from​ ​free​ ​college​ ​is​ ​followed​ ​up​ ​by​ ​text​ ​denoting​ ​the same​ ​idea,​ ​positive​ ​congruency​ ​is​ ​present;​ ​the​ ​same​ ​goes​ ​for​ ​tone,​ ​as​ ​long​ ​as​ ​there​ ​is consistency​ ​between​ ​the​ ​headline​ ​and​ ​the​ ​article.​ ​For​ ​example,​ ​whether​ ​an​ ​article​ ​criticizes​ ​or supports​ ​Sanders​ ​and​ ​his​ ​plan,​ ​as​ ​long​ ​as​ ​the​ ​tone​ ​of​ ​the​ ​headline​ ​matches​ ​the​ ​tone​ ​of​ ​the article,​ ​there​ ​is​ ​positive​ ​congruency.

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​5.​ ​​ ​Application​ ​of​ ​Statistics​ ​​(Budak,​ ​2016) ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Conceptual​ ​Definition​-​ ​The​ ​application​ ​of​ ​statistics​ ​is​ ​when​ ​quantitative

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​data​ ​is​ ​used​ ​to​ ​analyze​ ​a​ ​particular​ ​argument. ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​Operational​ ​Definition​-​ ​The​ ​application​ ​of​ ​statistics​ ​in​ ​an​ ​article​ ​can​ ​be​ ​measured​ ​by ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​the​ ​degree​ ​to​ ​which​ ​it​ ​is​ ​used​ ​to​ ​support​ ​or​ ​criticize​ ​an​ ​argument.​ ​It

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​is​ ​often​ ​the​ ​case​ ​that​ ​“statistics​ ​are​ ​disproportionately​ ​used​ ​to​ ​criticize​ ​one ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​side.”(Budak,​ ​2016)

x=0​ ​(Unequal​ ​Application​ ​of​ ​Statistics) ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​An​ ​unequal​ ​application​ ​of​ ​statistics​ ​will​ ​be​ ​present​ ​when​ ​an​ ​article​ ​uses​ ​quantitative​ ​data​ ​to ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​only​ ​support​ ​or​ ​only​ ​criticize​ ​Bernie​ ​Sanders’​ ​proposal​ ​of​ ​free​ ​college.​ ​For​ ​example,

​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​an​ ​article​ ​with​ ​an​ ​unequal​ ​application​ ​of​ ​statistics​ ​may​ ​use​ ​quantitative​ ​data​ ​to​ ​show​ ​how​ ​free college​ ​for​ ​everyone​ ​would​ ​take​ ​away​ ​money​ ​from​ ​schools,​ ​while​ ​failing​ ​to​ ​show​ ​contrasting data​ ​depicting​ ​the​ ​financial​ ​benefits​ ​for​ ​college​ ​students.

y=1​ ​(Equal​ ​Application​ ​of​ ​Statistics) An​ ​equal​ ​application​ ​of​ ​statistics​ ​will​ ​be​ ​present​ ​when​ ​an​ ​article​ ​uses​ ​quantitative​ ​data​ ​to analyze​ ​both​ ​the​ ​issues​ ​and​ ​benefits​ ​with​ ​Bernie​ ​Sanders’​ ​proposal​ ​for​ ​free​ ​college.​ ​For example,​ ​an​ ​article​ ​with​ ​an​ ​equal​ ​application​ ​of​ ​statistics​ ​may​ ​use​ ​quantitative​ ​data​ ​to​ ​show how​ ​students​ ​benefit​ ​from​ ​a​ ​tuition​ ​reduction,​ ​while​ ​also​ ​showing​ ​quantitative​ ​data​ ​that​ ​depicts the​ ​burden​ ​taxpayers​ ​would​ ​face​ ​with​ ​a​ ​free​ ​college​ ​solution.

Write​ ​each​ ​variable​ ​name​ ​in​ ​the​ ​column​ ​below (use​ ​an​ ​8​ ​character-or-less​ ​abbreviation​ ​of​ ​this​ ​variable​ ​name)

News​ ​Story​ ​Title positvty hdlnvalnc contrarg hdlnrep stats

An​ ​unworkable free-tuition​ ​plan

0

0

0

1

0

The​ ​false​ ​hope​ ​of free​ ​college

0

0

0

1

0

Sander’s​ ​idea​ ​of free​ ​tuition deserves​ ​an​ ​A

1

1

0

1

0

Clinton​ ​Adopts​ ​a Sanders​ ​Idea​ ​in Tuition​ ​Plan

1

1

1

1

1

Works​ ​Cited

Budak,​ ​C.,​ ​Goel,​ ​S.,​ ​Rao,​ ​J.​ ​M.​ ​(2016).​ ​Fair​ ​and​ ​balanced?​ ​Quantifying​ ​media​ ​bias​ ​through​ ​crowdsourced content​ …