PV System Final Reportshoomoosh
Running head: RESIDENTIAL SOLAR ENERGY APPLIED PROJECT
Running head: RESIDENTIAL SOLAR ENERGY APPLIED PROJECT
Residential Solar System Proposal
Applied Project Course Advisor: Terry Alford
Academic Advisor: Amy Newberg
Industrial Mentor: John Balfour
Residential Solar Energy Applied Project
Integration of Solar Panels at a Residential Home in Haiti
This research proposal entails a study of solar power installation and output in a residential setting. The procedure of installing solar panels necessitates a study of the region to determine how the panels' output may be increased based on sun coverage hours. Due to advancements in technology and people's everyday demands, energy consumption has risen dramatically in recent years. Installing solar panels in a private residence in Haiti would ensure that the regions provide the most effective quantity of electricity to serve the homeowner who want to go off the grid for three days. To collect the sun's energy and convert it to electricity, you'll need to install solar panels, solar charge controllers, inverters, and batteries. The project proposal must include the development of a schedule that allows for adequate connection with environmental conditions as well as a knowledge of how solar power consumption is cost-effective.
Keyword: residential, panels, charge controller
Table of Contents
4 2. Background and Industry Issue
5 3. Problem Statement, Requirements and Industry Significance
12 a. Top-Level Schedule by Phase with Milestones
13 8. Labor and Material Budgets
15 10. Top Five Success Project Success Factors
The applied project is the culmination of Arizona State University's Professional Science Masters (P.S.M) in Solar Energy Engineering and Commercialization curriculum. The final output should be comparable to a standard master's thesis in terms of quality. However, due to the expedited nature of the program, the comparative labor demand and technical expectations of the end product are necessarily reduced. While it may appear to be a disadvantage to the curriculum, it is really a component of the program design and a helpful procedure for students transitioning from academics to industry.
The goal of participation and involvement in the P.S.M program is to immerse oneself as much as possible in the field of solar energy. This spectrum of knowledge includes everything from basic photovoltaic principles of P-N junctions to industrial commercialization procedures including complementing commercial and utility organizations. The project management and executive expertise offered by the applied project provide basis for this assumption. Most commercial projects do not finish, and those that do frequently face timetable changes and hurdles that put the project team's capabilities to the test. As a result, understanding this process and going through the growing pains of compartmentalizing an unknown future is just as crucial as the ultimate delivery.
The project's goal is to evaluate the deployment of solar panel operations on a Caribbean island. As a result, high-quality work is required to guarantee that all technical criteria for the program are completed and submitted in order to gain a thorough grasp of solar operations. Due to its high level of efficacy in managing current economic conditions and providing a reliable and inexpensive power source, solar power has become widely used.
The project's implementing agent is a current student who obtained important job experience in the manufacturing engineering industry for a year after graduating with a bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering in 2020. During this period, the solar industry has continued to expand, and client behavior has changed as a result. Their return to academics is motivated by their observation of this market potential, as well as a lifetime enthusiasm for and desire to work in the solar sector. A potential solar professional's first work assignment is the applied project.
This project proposal includes a high-level explanation of project goals and deliverables, as well as the conceptual structure of the project approach. This method starts with an examination of current industry challenges and how additional inquiry reveals a clear, succinct, and still notable problem statement that warrants further investigation. Separate the information and research needed into separate and/or related objectives as the first step toward addressing or best approaching the issue statement. These goals can then be broken down into stages. These phases and milestones form the basis of a plan that keeps the student/implementing agent on track and enhances the likelihood of extensive research and a high-quality deliverable result within the duration of the graduate program.
The project proposal is intended solely for the student's and the applied project advisory team's reference. Dr. Terry Alford, the Applied Project Director and SEC 593 course professor, the academic advisor (Amy Newberg), and the industrial advisor make up the applied project advisory team (John Balfour).
Members of the Arizona Corporation Commission and corresponding homeowners with a vested interest in installing solar energy on their roofs, as well as anybody else interested in going off grid, are the target audience for the final deliverable.
2. BACKGROUND & INDUSTRY ISSUE
Haiti's renewable energy potential is considerable. Despite this, the country confronts tremendous obstacles in obtaining clean, renewable energy. Imported fossil fuels account for around 80% of total power generation. Haiti is an intriguing renewable energy possibility because of its underused prospects for small hydropower, smart grid, and biomass systems. Biomass, such as charcoal and wood fuel, is a major source of energy for a large portion of the population. Although there are solar and wind resources all throughout the nation, just a small portion of their potential has been realized. Hydropower is the most important source of renewable energy in Haiti.
In 2018, local demand for electrical machinery and equipment from the United States was evaluated at $20.4 million. Electricite d'Haiti (EDH), an underperforming, mostly government-owned business, supplies roughly 5 to 13 hours of power per day across the country, however the availability of electricity on the EDH networks may be considerably reduced by breakdowns in the fuel supply chain. The metropolis of Port-au-Prince receives fewer than 20 hours of electricity each day. Due to the unavailability of power generated by the grid locals rely on other sources of power hence the use of PV modules.
It might be difficult to live without electricity on a daily basis, especially in today's world. This is the main point of the project proposal. While various growth techniques for providers and market conditions exist, there is limited precedent for a research that is particular to the circumstances. These precedent studies, in combination with quantitative market data, will give important first and third-person consumer evidence to form the basis of existing condition assumptions for further research.
3. PROBLEM STATEMENT, REQUIREMENTS & INDUSTRY SIGNIFICANCE
A. PROBLEM STATEMENT
The following is a summary of the problem statement: The current commercial electric infrastructure provided by the Haitian government is inadequate, if not non-existent, to satisfy current and future demand. What are the costs and equipment? Homeowners who wish to avoid using fossil fuels and instead utilize solar energy must install a PV system on their property appropriately. How can adopting solar and being partially or totally off-grid assist the locals, despite the fact that they are related?
B. SOLUTION REQUIREMENTS
The issue statement should be addressed in the same way that a thesis should be tackled. The procedure starts with the presenting of a hypothesis: Because renewable energy is becoming increasingly popular across the world, particularly in developed nations, it should be adopted in more countries that are experiencing financial difficulties. Following that, different cost initiatives and their market impacts will be interpolated within the project's defined assumptions and restrictions. As a result, the solution to the issue statement must satisfy the following criteria:
• Using first-hand research data and the viewpoints of PV system owners and users to identify economic and behavioral tendencies.
• Prescribed assumptions and restrictions about the project's scope, as well as a strong framework to minimize scope deviation.
• Analysis of electrical billing and expense data for household applications that use and don't use grid electricity.
• Valid precedent study on alternative PV system processes in Haiti, as well as any verifiable evidence on the logic behind their deployment
• Specific specifications for qualitative market circumstances and quantitative measurables that must be judged appropriate for interpolation to Haiti based on given rationale.
• Initial interviews with current industrial members to develop a list of criteria for allocating investment dollars, time, and attention to any PV system for every residential property.
• Arizona Corporation Commission-specific report format and presentation.
Academic and industry advisers were chosen for their practical understanding and experience with the commission and energy investment markets, respectively, to satisfy the unique solution needs. Their advice and assistance will enable a more effective allocation of the labor budget to areas of study that are more relevant to the target audience and beneficiaries, rather than spending time on outdated or irrelevant material.
Previous work experience in the field of residential project electric design is among the relevant experience and competencies of the project implementing agent. As part of the PSM program, I learned a lot about PV modules, planning, implementation, and follow-up. Furthermore, as a student, I have had recent exposure to the interconnection of the solar businesses, which has provided me with useful knowledge.
C. INDUSTRY SIGNIFICANCE
The project's specific requirement arose from an initial request from a homeowner in Haiti who was interested in installing solar panels on his roof. After much debate, it was decided that, because grid power is unreliable, electricity for three days is required. Currently, there is insufficient energy around the country, and the government can hardly offer any sort of power. If such accommodation is not provided, residents will have to rely on alternate power sources or produce their own power outlet.
Any Haitian homeowners highlighted that looking into this topic with zeal and seeking any helpful advice as to how solar energy can be molded and made cheaper may truly have a significant influence on having more electricity across the island. Because cost is a major factor in integrating solar energy in residential structures, knowing the relationship between feasibility and return on investment is critical to solving the problem. As a result, it has been established that the homeowners of the project are the most effective target audience for effecting change. If successful in aiding in the execution of this project, the residential investor, ideally solar developers, and residents from less populous cities, will be the project's long-term benefactors.
As a result, such a research might assist the solar sector, as states with substantial solar infrastructure are now having difficulties with solar installations being shut off from grid integration (otherwise known as curtailment). This is due to a lack of load demand during peak solar output hours, negating a significant benefit of solar installation. As a result, widespread expansion of new loads, particularly during current periods of low demand, can only enhance the industry's health.
The project's goal is to provide a cost analysis for installing a PV system on the roof of a residential property in Haiti. These efforts will be evaluated for their short- and long-term effects on the case studies based on particular qualitative and quantifiable criteria developed through additional research. These impacts must be interpolated within the existing legislative framework and residential market circumstances of Haiti or any other Caribbean island with equivalent legislation, subject to particular condition assumptions and limits for direct translation. With the use of first-hand testimony, such interpolation impacts will be utilized to assess the advantages of establishing a PV system and possible energy sector investors. This conclusory information will be displayed as a financial repercussions graph and prospective electric generation propagation graph. The degree to which this figure resembles predicted renewable energy generation statistics will determine how effectively solar PV system efforts will satisfy the issue statement's requirements.
More effort and study will be devoted to determining how the expansion of home solar systems benefits the solar industry without imposing a connection. Understanding the technical components of solar panels by categorization, size, and output is required for this. Furthermore, when additional storage is necessary to account for the limits of and allow for constant rising solar penetration rates, home PV systems may be seen as both a power generator and a storage device. These ancillary advantages open up new business prospects, emphasizing the need of execution and cost-cutting.
The research's focus will be limited to Haiti, with contributions from other nations in the area possible. This is owing to the large number of assumptions and data needed to extrapolate various market systems to Haiti in the time frame given. The behavioral and financial study of the home will be limited to Haitian households.
According to Forbes, Haiti has limited access to electricity, with just 38 percent of Haitians having access to the grid in 2016, a slight increase from 28 percent in 1990. Even today, individuals who have access to the grid face frequent blackouts and inconsistent electricity quality. Despite natural disasters and energy scarcity, Haiti has made firm pledges to transition to a renewable energy economy. The Haitian Parliament abolished import taxes and levies on solar technology in September 2017. (the US, moving in the opposite direction, imposed a 30 percent import tariff on Chinese solar panels only a few months later in January 2018).
Haiti is also well suited to solar energy. According to a Worldwatch research, Haiti receives a similar amount of average yearly sunshine (measured in global horizontal radiance) as sunny Phoenix, Arizona, making it an ideal location for solar power. Solar is cost competitive and, with financing, is instantly cost beneficial in Haiti, given the high cost of imported fuel. According to Kwak, “distributed renewable energy has the potential to improve resiliency, prosperity, and fuel sustainable development,” and social businesses like 10Power are crucial to achieving this at scale.
The entire installed solar energy capacity is 0.7 MW. Lighting consumes 80% of solar energy produced; the remaining 20% is utilized for vaccinations, seafood conservation, pumping, audiovisual, and communication. Many solar firms have recently identified Haiti as a major market opportunity for solar energy. According to 10Power's creator, the potential solar power industry is worth more than $500 million. The construction of the Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais was completed in 2013. This hospital is the world's largest solar-powered hospital. Over 1,800 solar panels are installed in the hospital. In a market where solar energy is so underutilized, the completion of this project will highlight its potential and the benefits it can provide to any household who can afford to go solar and avoid relying on the grid.
A. SOCIAL OBJECTIVE (MORE SOLAR PANELS ON THE MARKET)
If the plan is approved, the proposal's particular social goal is to enhance the probability that more homeowners will opt to install solar panels on their roof at a fair cost. This will happen if stereotyped concerns about PV systems are alleviated as a consequence of sound cost analysis and infrastructure. This is critical since most third-world nations now have limited access to both conventional and renewable energy. As long as fossil fuels are used to generate electricity, the health hazards posed by emissions and the resultant climate change are not yet measured, but they have a significant influence on society.
B. ECONOMIC OBJECTIVES (MORE SOLAR PANEL INVESTMENT)
The economic goal is to set policy and market circumstances in such a way that solar panels and PV systems are seen as a common-sense investment. This may take the shape of solar-like leasing arrangements that encourage free installation in exchange for cheaper costs and continuous operational control work. The marketing of a total initial purchase, on the other hand, may be justified depending on the expected yearly return. Regardless, the impartial return data will reveal the alternative with the best chance of succeeding. The financial forecasts will be examined on an individual level and extrapolated to a larger scale, based on set estimates, assumptions, and advisor-approved information sources. Otherwise, particular financial facts cannot be guaranteed and should not be regarded as such.
When building any PV system for a property, the issue in the solar business will be to outline the feasibility of the ancillary services of solar panels needed and energy storage. While this is a topic deserving of further investigation, the intricacies of current demand response will not be discussed. Instead, the impact on the load profile will be restricted to estimates about probable ramp rate changes based on solar panel cost propagation rates and Haiti's most recent load statistics. Precise solar market growth profiles will be described qualitatively as a concept rather than with specific pricing projections.
C. PSM PROGRAM COMPLETION
One of the primary goals of the program is to demonstrate how exposure to the interconnectedness of engineering, business, and solar generating within the framework of the solar sector can be used to the alternative, but equally important subject of energy storage. As a result, the primary goal is to submit the report, which will serve as the final product and summary of the graduate program. Following the project defense, supplemental material, such as the project notebook, the collection of weekly project updates, and the project time logbook, will be delivered to the applicant project director. The advisory panel will next provide signatures on the document's cover page to affirm their final approval, if it has been earned. The student will have finished the program and so graduated if all deliverables are delivered while fulfilling program specific quality requirements.
D. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Beyond the program's scope, the project's final report is anticipated to serve as a free but valuable deliverable for the Arizona Corporation Commission to refer to as the deliberation process on home PV systems progresses towards policy formation. The academic adviser, who has relevant expertise as a previous head commissioner with the commission, will advise on changes to the final report that must be submitted to the commission board. Additionally, the commission will be given with the deliverable's essential facts, with the option for extra consideration among individual commissioners if needed. The potential of further research and investigation at the commission's request exists. It will, however, stay outside the scope of this proposal until it is confirmed.
New and enhanced technical skills and understanding of solar panels and PV modules are among the project's positive personal aims. As previously stated, the study will focus on the feasible market in Haiti. Understanding the benefits of solar energy with extra income-generating capacities, as well as increased public knowledge at the community and state levels, will make the transfer to international levels of study much simpler. If this chance does not materialize, the project management abilities and expertise will be transferable to a managerial engineering job, which is highly valued by industry.
6. PROJECT APPROACH PLAN
This portion of the method will provide a detailed study of the inhabitants of Haiti, demonstrating how they might acquire electricity from panels and become self-sufficient in their power access. The proposed technique is to develop a systematic approach to improved power management based on the area's budget allocations. The project must be broken down into phases in order to guarantee that the resilient nature can adjust to environmental and economic variables. Calculation of solar panel wattage, charge controller power, battery Ah, and inverter needs are all part of the process of installing solar panels in the region (Swagatam, 2019).
Estimated Load Wattage
This part of the project entails a charge/load study to determine energy usage. Since the residence getting created by the homeowner is in Haiti at his property, the anticipated energy usage would be appliances that consume 100 watts.
The appliance is expected to take 10 hours to complete. The complete power required from the panel for an approximate number of 5 appliances would be as follows:
number of appliances= 5
total sun coverage time= 10 hours
load for each appliance= 100watt load
=> 5*100 = 500-watt load
=> 500 watts * 10 hours = 5,000-Watt hours
Assessment of Solar Panel Dimension
The next step is to figure out how big a solar panel you'll need. After evaluating Haiti, it was discovered that the average daily solar exposure is 8 hours (“Sunshine & Daylight Hours in Port-Au-Prince, Haiti, n.d.”). The weather in the region is mostly mild, although there are times when hurricanes and earthquakes strike. Regardless, it is important to use hours for sun protection.
4,000-Watt hours/8 hours sunlight= 500-Watt Solar panel
The proposed batteries must have a 12V rating. It is critical to determine the battery's required AH rating.
333.33 Amp Hours = 4000-Watt Hours/12 Volts
This figure can be rounded up to 350 AH and utilized as a reserve power source. A 350 AH 12V battery would be required for the inverter.
The following evaluation would be acceptable to establish the solar charge controller specifications: 350/12= 29.2 Amps
Following these estimates, a 30-amp solar charge controller, 12V batteries, and 500-Watt solar panels would be required.
7. TASK DICTIONARY
The project will include a range of activities to improve the production of various regions in order to cover the installation of solar panels at a Haitian family residence. The duties include assessing the project's scope and developing various timetables to guarantee proper management of internal operations and an increase in the area's production. The project will be broken into the following sections:
Studying on the course requirement
Selection of a topic for the project
Preparation of the Project Proposal
Suggestions for Development
Table 1: Task Dictionary
Phase 4: Implementation
This phase entails a review of the project to find the most efficient procedures for increasing the output of the solar panels at the residence. Because the solar panels will be utilized for domestic reasons, it will be necessary to manage internal operating needs to guarantee that the homeowner achieves his goal of being off the grid. Region analysis, appliance study, homeowner influence in the area, and availability of solar power generation specialists are all part of this step.
4.1 Area Study
4.1.1: The involves assessment of the areas in Haiti and how they would function using the available solar power industry
4.1.2: Assessment of wattage requirements based on appliances in the home
4.1.3: Performance assessment based on the output of the area
4.2 Appliances Study
4.2.1: Determining the types of appliances to use the solar power
4.2.2: Assessment of solar power for the proposed three days of being off the grid
4.2.3: Creation of an effective reliable solar charge controller
4.3 Homeowner’s Influence in The Area
4.3.1: Assessment of residential properties and their use of solar power
4.3.2: Creation of an effective management plan to determine solar power operations
4.3.3: Identify of areas at the residential home where the solar panels would get set up
4.4 Availability of Solar Power Generation Professionals
4.4.1: Identify professionals offering solar power in the area
4.4.2: Determine costs involved in setting up the solar panels
4.4.3: Assessment of techniques of increasing output of the panels depending on weather conditions
Phase 5: Suggestions for Development
5.1 Creation of management for Solar Implementation
5.1.1: Interview the homeowner to determine the solar power energy requirements
5.1.2: Collaboration with the homeowner to determine areas in his house to put up the panels
5.1.3: Management of the homeowners’ requirements
5.2 Assessment of Use of Many Appliances
5.2.1: Selection of the appliances to improve output of the area
5.2.2: Identification of power requirement of each appliance
5.2.3: Determine which area to but appliances
5.3 Increase in Days of Being Off the Grid
5.3.1: Developing reliable solar panels and battery specifications
5.3.2: Interview meteorological departments to find out true solar coverage
5.3.3: Selection of data from the areas to create solar power reliability
5.4 Availability of Solar Power Even with Little Sun
5.4.1: Determining best panels for accessing the most sun coverage
5.4.2: Selection of reliable solar panels regardless of weather
5.4.3: Determine if the panels would be reliable with little power coverage
Phase 6: Maintenance
6.1 Using Reliable Devices
6.1.1: Ensuring the devices function well with the implemented method
6.1.2: Using solar providers trained to handle the devices and area requirements
6.1.3: Improvement using the homeowners’ future requirements
6.2 Creation of Manageable Devices
6.2.1: Enhancement of quality output using performance-enhanced internal operators
6.2.2: Determining angles of setting up the panels
6.2.3: Construction the remaining part of the home to suit the solar panels
6.3 Promotion of Solar Power for Many Residents
6.3.1: Determining the power requirements based on ability to create widespread solar power usage
6.3.2: Assessment of full power production in the entire town
6.3.3: Cost-reduction to facilitate better accessibility
6.4 Allowing Major Improvements Using Environmental Conditions
6.4.1: Increasing environmental adaptation and eco-friendliness
6.4.2: Determine robust output based on lots of hours of sun coverage
6.4.3: Exploration of require service improvements
Phase 7: Final Documentation
7.1: Final Report
7.1.1: Creation of the final report would ensure the proper assessment based on the P.S.M program requirements
7.1.2: Draft the final report based on the provided structure by the academic advisor
7.2: Future Plans
7.2.1: Explanation of how previous knowledge got used to enhance project creation
7.2.2: Recommendation of the proper future study based on availability of assumptions for all the project documents
8. PROJECT SCHEDULE
The process of assessing the project shall involve different tasks as shown in the Gantt chart
a. Top-Level Schedule by Phase with Milestones
The anticipated start date for the project was January 11th, 2021. Based on the availability of several project stages and their relationship to the intended outcome, the project is likely to perform well. Phases 4 and 5 are included in the top-level schedule because they feature milestones that must be met in order to improve solar power operations service delivery. Using tactical techniques to enhance solar power adaptation in the region, it is feasible to raise the adaptability of solar power operations.
b. Schedule for Each Phase
The timetable for each phase is written next to the project milestones on the Gantt chart. It is clear that the days chosen will allow the project to cover all of the areas that need to be developed. The days are long enough to do research and carry out all of the proposed operations.
9. LABOR & MATERIAL BUDGET
The project deliverable must span 175 hours, according to the applicable project manual. This is enough time to guarantee that the project includes various activities that will improve the result depending on the project materials' accessibility. Using the time frame and availability of research resources, enough time was committed to accomplishing the project. The project will entail a number of actions, each of which will have a distinct relationship to the performance criteria. Unfortunately, due to limits imposed by the COVID-19 virus, which took effect in May 2020, labor cannot be considered. One of the primary causes is that the majority of the lesson was spent online, and the budget was not taken into consideration. The report would include labor from before Covid-19.
10. RISK MITIGATION PLAN
Risk 1: Lack of communication with solar power providers in Haiti
The solution is to keep in touch with existing solar power suppliers to verify that all activities are carried out in accordance with environmental regulations. This would be a necessity for dealing with the difficulties that arise when new solar panels are installed and used in conjunction with an existing power infrastructure.
To increase accuracy throughout all conversations with people who are familiar with the region, choose a trustworthy communication channel such as video calls or emails. In this approach, adequate understanding would be gained, allowing for reliable solar output and production in the region.
Risk 2: Limited connection with the areas sun coverage
Persons attempting to go off the grid for extended periods of time would face dependability issues as a result of this issue. Setting up panels at angles that get direct sunshine for lengthy periods of time would be the right delivery.
To guarantee that the solar panels acquire sufficient charge, the process of obtaining maximum output from the solar panel need an efficient connection with the sun coverage. This will boost the positive output while also ensuring that the solar panels function as efficiently as possible.
Risk 3: Getting unqualified insight for managing solar power operations
This might be handled by involving people who are well-versed in solar power operations. As a result, the resident being researched would complete the remining 20% completion in a high-quality manner.
11. TOP FIVE PROJECT SUCCESS FACTORS
After analyzing the proposal for the presence of the following success elements, it would function properly:
1. Increased solar power adoption by a large number of people in the region 2. Development of a dependable energy source based on environmental circumstances
3. Taking use of a readily available free power source
4. The home should be built in such a way that the panels may be set up in key angles.
5. Increase the solar power industry's profitability by incorporating cost-effectiveness in key areas.
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