Research Proposal Draft



Vaccination and Immunization of Children under the age of 5 in India and Switzerland

Research Methodology

Student’s Name





Research Methodology


The process of conducting research entails specific procedures and techniques that need to be followed. These procedures outline how information regarding a topic will be selected, processed and analyzed. Additionally, this is also where a reader finds out the reliability and validity of the study, thus giving it the scientific touch. There are different types of research methodology chosen depending on the nature of the study. The two board types are qualitative and quantitative. There are four main types of quantitative research designs: descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental and experimental while there are 5 types of qualitative research: ethnography, narrative, phenomenological, grounded theory, and case study (Creswell & Clark, 2017). This study intends to determine reasons why children under the age of 5 are not vaccinated/immunized. The researcher identified political problems and wants to help readers understand the importance and benefits of immunizing children under the ae of 5. Therefore, the study will be qualitative in nature, specifically a descriptive study. This will allow the researcher to provide a better and deeper understanding as to why vaccination of children under the age of five is important. It makes this possible by allowing inquiries to be done on participants. Results from such a study form a firm basis for policy decision making, something that the researcher aims to achieve.

Extraneous Variables (and plan for how controlled).

These are variables that will not be involved directly in the study. In this case, variables such as the parent’s literacy levels, as well as the location, household wealth and size will be extraneous variables. The parent’s literacy level is bound to affect their decision as to whether they are willing to let their child get immunized or not. The region where they stay is also a factor that could easily influence the environmental conditions that justify vaccination. Finally, household size and wealth can also be a determining factor. All these variables will be included in the questionnaire, where the respondents will be asked to indicate their literacy levels, location, household wealth and size. These will then be factored out when analyzing data.


Validity, and reliability estimates

Christensen, Johnson, and Turner (2011) defined the validity of a research instrument as its ability to measure all the variables chosen for the study. This, therefore, is determined by the kind of questions included in the research questionnaire. They should be able to measure one element at a time, be clear and precise on the nature of their inquiry. Reliability, on the other hand, was also described by Christensen, Johnson, and Turner (2011) as the level of consistency indicated by the scale of a research instrument. Consistency means that in the event that the study is conducted again, say twice or three times, then the results obtained will be similar. As indicated by Cho and Kim, (2015), the best way to achieve reliability is to have a consistent scale measuring all the question included in the questionnaire. A five-point Likert scale that will be adopted by this study so as to give the respondent a wider range of answers on which to provide their view about a statement or question. The scale will be verified using Cronbach’s alpha derived from SPSS (Version 22) to determine its suitability. A Cronbach’s alpha of 0.6 and above will indicate that the scale is reliable (Cho & Kim, 2015).

Description of the Intervention

This study intends to identify the relationship between vaccination and immunization of young children below the age of 5 thereby providing insights into why it is important for them to do so. The purpose of the research study, therefore, is to find a lasting solution for all parents looking to decide whether to vaccinate their children. The results will also help find the best way for the whole population to access medical services after birth to reduce the high cost of payments made to access them.

Data Collection Procedures

The main research instrument that will be used in this research study is the questionnaire. A questionnaire is a form containing a set of questions submitted to a specific target population to gain statistical information regarding a particular topic (Patten, 2016). In this case, the questionnaire will be used to collect information from participants who have been immunized and those who have not been immunized. The process of data collection will first involve finding a sample from the population. This sample will be arrived at by using a stratified sampling technique where the entire population will be divided into strata (individuals with social, economic, or educational status). Simple random sampling will then be used to select the preferred sample from each stratum which will then be a pool to form a sample size. The questionnaire will then be distributed to the selected sample on a drop and collect later method. They will then be analyzed and the information obtained used to make conclusions and recommendations.


Cho, E., & Kim, S. (2015). Cronbach’s coefficient alpha: Well-known but poorly understood. Organizational Research Methods18(2), 207-230.

Christensen, L. B., Johnson, R. B., & Turner, L. A. (2011). Science and Research. Research methods, design, and analysis, 20-22.

Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage publications.

Patten, M. L. (2016). Questionnaire research: A practical guide. Routledge.