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Does the research design answer the research question?

The research questions of the article by Lidgate & Lindenmeyer (2018) seek to look at the experiences of the parents and the informal caregivers in receiving and providing informal childcare for the British children of ages 0-5 years; the perceptions about the relationship existing between the informal childcare and the childhood obesity; and the proposed intervention thoughts and the delivery approaches in preventing obesity amongst children who are receiving informal care (Lidgate & Lindenmeyer 2018).

Through adopting the in-depth focus groups of 14 participants, the researchers managed to offer answers to the research questions. Based on the outcome of the study, the informal carers were identified to be offering both practical and the emotional support roles for the parents. There was a perception that informal care is contributing to childhood obesity through cross generation conflicts that prevents the adoption of the healthy practices; the trade-off for the parents between the receiving childcare and the maintenance of the control; reduction of the energy capacity of the carers; and increase in the snacking. The findings is supporting the idea of and informing the development towards an information based and the cheaper intervention that is being provided through the present primary care platforms (Lidgate & Lindenmeyer 2018).

Tremblay et al. (2017) was focused on the Canadian 24-Hour movement Guidelines for the early (0-4 years) that involves the integration of the physical, sedentary, behaviors, and the sleep. This study involved a systematic review that examined the physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, and the combined behaviors that looks into the relationship within among the movement behaviors and several health indicators that were completed usign the Guideline Development Panel. This study method helped in the generation of the evidence-informed proposals that invlved the combinations of the light, moderate, and the vigorous-intensity physical activity, the sedentary behaviors, and the sleep among individuals from ages 1 to 4 years in the achievement of the healthy day. This guideline is offering a public health guideline where there is maximization of the health that is based on the balance of movement (Tremblay et al., 2017).

Lloyd et al., 2018 focused at establishig whether the school-based interventions for children of ages 9-10 years would help in preventive excessive weight gain after 24 months. The researchers used pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial of the Healthier Lifestyle Programme (HeLP) which is a school-based obesity prevention intervention that was performed in 32 schools found in the southwest England. This method is revealing school as the ideal location for the childhood obesity preventiuon programs due to the near-universal reach f children in the socioeconomic spectrum. It also shows the importance of the change in the diet and physical activity behaviors and their impacts on the weight status (Lloyd, et al., 2018).

In Ash et al (2017), the researchers were aiming at profiling the current family-based childhood obesity prevention as an intervention through the employment of the systematic review and the quantitative content evaluation techniques to help in the identification of the present gaps in the awareness. The method employed by the authors was a wide-ranging search approach using the databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. This was done to guide on the identification of the eligible interventions that can help in the prevention of childhood obesity accompanied with lively family component that was developed between 2008 and 2015. The search results reveal that the existence in the few numbers of interventions that target the diverse population and the obesity risk habits beyond the diet and the physical exercises inhibiting the process of developing all-inclusive, custom-made intervention (Ash et al., 2017).

Were the study sample participants representative

The sample size used by the Lidgate & Lindenmeyer (2018) were few, therefore, it makes it hard for the outcome of the study to be used to represent or generalized what is happening in other cities. Even though researchers made an effort to recruit both parents and the carers in the study, only 14 participants were involved in the study to ensure that it meets the limited timeframe. Therefore, it is recommended that the interpretation of the study outcome have to be done with some limitations (Lidgate & Lindenmeyer 2018).

In the study by Tremblay et al. (2017), a total of 552 Canadian preschool-aged children from CHMS were used. The sample used in the research work are adequate enough to reveal the events related to the link of the time being used during sleep, sedentary behavior, LPA, and the MVPA (Tremblay et al., 2017).

In a study by Lloyd et al. (2018), the sample calculation assumed a mean of 35 children age 9-10 years in every school and this implies that a total of 1,120 samples were used. This is a good number that can represents the problems at the 32 schools that were being targeted by the researchers.

In Ash et al (2017), a total of 84 samples from the underserved population and non-traditional families and as well as the racial or ethnic composition were used. Even though this is a smaller sample, it gives a clear picture of the role played by family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions (Ash et al., 2017).

Comparing the study limitations

The limitation of the study by Lidgate & Lindenmeyer (2018) is linked to the few number of the study participants who took part in the study. The researchers only managed to recruit 14 participants to ensure that the limited timeframe of the project is met. This therefore makes it essential to make an interpretation of the data with some limitations (Lidgate & Lindenmeyer 2018).

The limitation of the research work by Tremblay et al. (2017) is that there was an incomplete evidence-based for the guidelines with low quality. The study is not representing the best available evidence collected through the systematic review and the original research. The research work is lacking adequate research to form specific aspects of guideliens for example the dose-response research studies.

In the article by Lloyd et al. (2018), the findings of the study shows that the effectiveness of the school-based obesity prevention programmed is inconclusive and contradictory. The interventions used are highly heterogenous in the design and most of the studies used for the research have some methodological weaknesses for example the inadequate statistical power, greater levels of attrition, differential uptake, follow-up, and the short-lived follow-up.

The limitation showed by the researcher in Ash et al (2017) is that the focus was on the articles that were published over relatively narrow time-period. The researchers also failed to evaluate the effectiveness or the quality of the intervention thus limiting the potential of the review. The outcome of the study can be influenced by the number as well as the choice of the databases searched thus subjecting it to the publication bias (Ash et al., 2017).

Whether the selected qualitative study is supporting the practice problem

The problem in this case is related to the obesity especially on children. There is an increase concern about the rise in the reported cases of obesity among children. Based on the findings by Lidgate & Lindenmeyer (2018), there are four themes that emerged. The most important two themes include the importance of the informal care to families and the society and the potential explanations for the link between childhood obesity and the informal care. These themes are important since they reveal the relationship between the childhood obesity and the informal care as well as revealing the role played by the families and the society when it comes to the implementation of the informal care (Lidgate & Lindenmeyer 2018).

The study by Lidgate & Lindenmeyer (2018) is important since it reveals that obesity in children is associated with the informal childcare and the rising risk factors of the childhood obesity for children of ages 0-5 years. The study reveal that informal education to the carers is important in supporting parents and helping in the prevention of obesity amongst children. The intervention that targets the primary care is helping in the reduction of the risk of childhood obesity (Lidgate & Lindenmeyer 2018).

The study by Tremblay et al. (2017) is based on the proces as well as the outcomes for the development of the Canamdian 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years (0-4 years) which involves the integration of the physical activity, sleep, and the sedentary behavior. The two importance themese emerged from the stufy findings i.e. physical activity and health indicators and the sedentary health behaviors and indicators. The researchers focused on the development of the guidelines that involves the integration of the movement behaviors which followes a shift towards whole-day strategy to the conceptualization of the movement behavior supported by the Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines. It helps in ensuring that the problem of childhood obesity is addressed through promotion of active health lifestyles (Tremblay et al., 2017).

In the research work by Lloyd et al. (2018), two themes were considered to be important i.e. energy in and decision making and the responsibility. It is clear that school hosts many children and can therefore be used as ideal place to deliver the population-based interventions. Even though it might not adequately intensed to affect both school and the family environment hence wieght of the children, it needs to be promoted since it helps in changing the health behaviors of the children. This is important in addressing the issue of childhood obesity sinnce it helps in promoting healthy behaviors among children (Lloyd , et al., 2018).

In Ash et al (2017), the key themes identified by the researchers included intervention characteristics, article characteristics, and the sample characteristics. The rise in childhood obesity is a burden to the nation. Therefore, efforts are being made to have an effective intervention. The researchers showed the need of having intervention effort, especially in the low- and middle-income nations. Ash et al (2017) study is therefore revealing the importance of family-based childhood obesity intervention that can be used to tackle the issue of obesity among children (Ash et al., 2017).


Ash, T., Agaronov, A., Aftosmes-Tobio, A., & Davidson, K. K. (2017). Family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions: a systematic review and quantitative content analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 113. https://doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0571-2 Lidgate , E. D., & Lindenmeyer, A. (2018). A qualitative insight into informal childcare and childhood obesity in children aged 0–5 years in the UK. BMC Public Health, 18, 1229. Lloyd, J., CStat, C. S., Logan, S., Green, C., Dean, S., Hillsdon , M., Abraham, C., Tomlinson, R., Pearson, V., Taylor, R., Ryan, E., Price, L., Streeter, A., Wyatt, K., & Wyatt, K. (2018). Effectiveness of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) to prevent obesity in UK primary-school children: a cluster randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 2(1), 35-45. Tremblay, M. S., Chaput , J.-P., & Carson, V. (2017). Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (0–4 years): An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. BMC Public Health, 17, 874.


Qualitative Articles

Lidgate & Lindenmeyer., 2018; Permalink:

Tremblay et al., 2017; Permalink:

Lloyd et al., 2018; Permalink:

Quantitative Article

Ash et al (2017); Permalink: https:// doi.10.1186/s12966-017-0571-2