On-line journal club: Critical Appraisal Using CASP

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CriticalAppraisalSkillsProgrammeCASP.docx

Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP)

making sense of evidence

10 questions to help you make sense of qualitative research

This assessment tool has been developed for those unfamiliar with qualitative research and its theoretical perspectives. This tool presents a number of questions that deal very broadly with some of the principles or assumptions that characterise qualitative research. It is not a definitive guide and extensive further reading is recommended.

How to use this appraisal tool

Three broad issues need to be Considered when appraising the report of qualitative research:

· Rigour: has a thorough and appropriate approach been applied to

· key research methods in the study?

·

· Credibility: are the findings well presented and meaningful?

· Relevance: how useful are the findings to you and your organisation?

The 10 questions on the following pages are designed to help you think about these issues systematically.

The first two questions are screening questions and can be answered quickly. If the answer to both is “yes”, it is worth proceeding with the remaining questions.

A number of italicised prompts are given after each question. These are designed to remind you why the question is important. Record your reasons for your answers in the spaces provided.

The 10 questions have been developed by the national CASP collaboration for qualitative methodologies.

© Public Health Resource Unit, England (2006). All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Public Health Resource Unit. If permission is given, then copies must include this statement together with the words “© Public Health Resource Unit, England 2006”. However, NHS organisations may reproduce or use the publication for non-commercial educational purposes provided the source is acknowledged.

© Public Health Resource Unit, England (2006). All rights reserved.

I

I have completed this assignment with my group: Yes____ No___

Name of group members who completed this assignment:

I have completed individually completed this assignment: Yes____-No_____

Your name:

Provide a citation of the article using APA guidelines:

Using figure 1.1 in your text, what is the level of evidence for this article:

Screening Questions

Place and “X” by the yes or no

1. Was there a clear statement of the aims D Yes D No

of the research? Justify answer and provide page number(s) found to support your response

Consider: Write comments/justification here:

· what the goal of the research was;

· why it is important;

· why it is relevant

·

·

2. Is a qualitative methodology appropriate? D Yes D No

Consider: Write comments/justification here: provide page number(s) found to support your response

If the research seeks to interpret or illuminate the actions and/or subjective experiences of research participants; if information is found in the article, include page number

·

Is it worth continuing with this appraisal based on the responses of the previous two questions?

D Yes D No

Detailed questions

Appropriate research design

· Was the research design appropriate to address the aims of the research?

· D Yes D No

Consider: Write comments/justification here: provide page number(s) found to support your response

If the researcher has justified the research design (e.g. have they discussed how they decided which methods to use?)

Sampling

3. Was the recruitment strategy appropriate D Yes D No

to the aims of the research?

Consider: Write comments/justification here: provide page number(s) found to support your response

if the researcher has explained how the participants were selected

·

Data collection

4. Were the data collected in a way that

addressed the research issue? D Yes D No

Consider: Write comments/justification here: provide page number(s) found to support your response

if the setting for data collection was justified

if it is clear how data were collected (e.g. focus group, semi-structured interview etc)

if the researcher has justified the methods chosen

if the researcher has made the methods explicit (e.g. for interview method, is there an indication of how interviews were conducted, did they used a topic guide?)

if methods were modified during the study. If so, has the researcher explained how and why?

if the form of data is clear (e.g. tape recordings, video material, notes etc)

if the researcher has discussed saturation of data

Reflexivity (research partnership relations/recognition of researcher bias)

5. Has the relationship between researcher and participants been adequately considered? D Yes D No

Consider: Write comments/justification here: provide page number(s) found to support your response

if the researcher critically examined their own role, potential bias and influence during:

formulation of research questions

-- data collection including sample recruitment and choice of location

How the researcher responded to events during the study and whether they Considered the implications of any changes in the research design

Ethical Issues

6. Have ethical issues been taken into consideration? D Yes D No

Provide page number(s) to support your response

Consider: Write comments/justification here:

if there are sufficient details of how the research was explained to participants for the reader to assess whether ethical standards were maintained

If the researcher has discussed issues raised by the study (e.g. issues around informed consent or confidentiality or how they have handled the effects of the study on the participants during and after the study)

If approval has been sought from the ethics committee

© Public Health Resource Unit, England (2006). All rights reserved.

Data Analysis

7. Was the data analysis sufficiently rigorous? D Yes D No

Consider: Write comments/justification here: provide page number(s) found to support your response

If there is an in-depth description of the analysis of processes

If thematic analysis is used. If so, is it clear how the categories/themes were derived from the data

Whether the researcher explains how the data presented were selected from the original sample to demonstrate the analysis process

If sufficient data are presented to support the findings

To what extent contradictory data are taken into account

Whether the researcher critically examined their own role, potential bias and influence during analysis and selection of data for presentation

Findings

8. Is there a clear statement of findings? D Yes D No

Consider: Write comments/justification here: provide page number(s) found to support your response

If the findings are explicit

If there is adequate discussion of the evidence both for and against the researcher’s arguments

If the researcher has discussed the credibility of their findings (e.g. triangulation, respondent validation, more than one analyst)

If the findings are discussed in relation to the original research questions

Value of the research

How valuable is the research? Provide page number(s) found to support your response

9.

Consider: Write comments/justification here:

If the researcher discusses the contribution the study makes to existing knowledge or understanding (e.g. do they Consider the findings in relation to current practice or policy, or relevant research-based literature?)

If they identify new areas where research is necessary

If the researchers have discussed whether or how the findings can be transferred to other populations or Considered other ways the research may be used

Additional consideration:

Write one paragraph regarding your scholarly thoughts of the findings of this research and how it might contribute to advancing nursing science. Additionally, discuss how this qualitative study contributes to evidence-based nursing practice? This response is not a summary of the research but addresses the questions indicated. If this is a group submission, you only need to write one paragraph, each group member does NOT need to write a separate paragraph.