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Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing Communications

Eighth Edition

Chapter 6

Advertising Design

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Chapters 6 presents information about advertising design. This chapter focuses on types of message strategies, appeals, and ad executions.

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Adweek Media and Harris Interactive Survey

Ads somewhat or very interesting (55%)

Ads not interesting at all (12%)

Ads very influential in purchase decisions (6%)

Ads somewhat influential in purchase decisions (29%)

Nearly half of 18-34 year-olds influenced by advertising

37% of 35-44 year-olds influenced by advertising

28% of individuals 45+ influenced by advertising

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Adweek Media and Harris Interactive conducted a survey of consumers about their attitudes toward advertising. 55% said ads were somewhat or very interesting compared to only 12% who said advertising was not interesting at all. About 6% said ads were very influential in the purchase decisions they made, and 29% said ads were somewhat influential in purchase decisions. About half of the survey respondents in the 18 to 34 year-old age bracket were influenced by advertising. The percentage dropped to 37% for individuals 35 to 44 and 28% for individuals 45 and older.

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McGarryBowen

Founded 2002

Strategic approach

Agency of the Year – 2009, 2011

New York, Chicago, London

Full-service approach

Hire and believe in people

Storytelling

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The mcgarrybowen advertising agency was founded in 2002 with the design to be both “gracious” and “tenacious.” Over the past decade, it has picked up an impressive list of clients such as Chevron, Canon, Disney, JP Morgan, Kraft, Oscar Mayer, and Pfizer. It is a full-service agency with offices in Chicago, New York, and London. The agency believes in people and emphasizes collaboration among employees and with clients. To achieve marketing goals, the creative staff utilizes a storytelling approach and strategic planning. Rather than integration, the goal is unification.

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Chapter Overview

Message strategies

Appeals

Executional frameworks

Sources

Spokespersons

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This chapter examines three primary advertising design issues – message strategies, appeals, and ad executions. While discussed separately, decisions about ad design incorporate all three elements. The last topic in the book addresses sources and spokespersons. The chapter examines characteristics of good sources and different types of spokespersons that can be used.

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Figure 6.1 Message Strategies

Cognitive

Generic

Unique selling proposition

Hyperbole

Comparative

Affective

Resonance

Emotional

Conative

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The message theme outlines the key ideas in an advertisement. It is a central part of the creative brief. The message then can be created using a number of different message strategies, the primary tactic or approach used to deliver the message theme. Message strategies can be divided into three main categories that correspond with the three components of attitude – cognitive, affective, and conative.

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Message Strategies (1 of 3)

Cognitive

Generic

Preemptive

Unique selling proposition

Hyperbole

Comparative

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A cognitive message strategy presents rational arguments or pieces of information to consumers. Cognitive message strategies are designed to influence the cognitive component of attitude, which deals with beliefs and knowledge. Cognitive message strategies can be divided into five types – generic, preemptive, unique selling proposition, hyperbole, and comparative.

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Generic Cognitive Message Strategy

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

A generic cognitive message strategy promotes a brand’s attributes or benefits without any claim of superiority. In this advertisement, Community Trust Bank states that checks can be deposited anytime and anywhere.

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Preemptive Cognitive Message Strategy

Claim of superiority based on attribute or benefit

Prevent competition from making same claim

First to state advantage

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A preemptive cognitive message strategy makes a claim of superiority based on a product’s specific attribute or benefit with the intent of preventing the competition from making the same claim.

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Unique Selling Proposition Cognitive Message Strategy

An advertisement by P & S Surgical Hospital using the unique selling proposition.

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A unique selling proposition message strategy focuses on a testable claim of uniqueness or superiority. This ad for P & S Surgical highlights its ratings by two different agencies and claims to be the “best smaller-sized hospital.”

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Hyperbole Advertising Cognitive Message Strategy

Untestable claim

Does not require substantiation

Popular cognitive approach

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A hyperbole cognitive message strategy is an untestable claim based on some attribute or benefit. It does not require substantiation, which makes it a popular cognitive strategy approach. Notice this ad uses hyperbole with the statement, “I found something better.”

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Comparative Advertising Cognitive Message Strategy

Direct or indirect comparisons

Real or fictitious competitor

Advantage – captures attention

Brand awareness increases

Message awareness increases

Negative – less believable, negative attitude

Negative comparative ad

Spontaneous trait transference

Choose comparisons carefully

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A comparative cognitive message strategy focuses on a direct or indirect comparison to a competing brand. The brand can be real, mentioned, or fictitious. The advantage of comparative ads is that they tend to capture attention. Brand awareness and message awareness tend to be higher. The negative aspect is that they can be less believable and can create a negative attitude. This is most likely to occur when a negative comparison approach is used in the ad, downgrading the competing brand. If the consumer does not believe the ad, then spontaneous trait transference can occur, which is placing the negative trait on the advertised brand instead of the competitor. It is important to choose competitors wisely in making comparisons.

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Message Strategies (2 of 3)

Affective

Resonance

Emotional

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Advertisements that invoke feelings or emotions are affective message strategies. These messages attempt to enhance the likeability of a product, recall of the message, and comprehension of the message. The two types of affective message strategies are resonance and emotional. Resonance advertising connects a product with a consumer’s experiences from the past in order to develop a bond with the brand. Often, advertisers will use music from that generation to create an emotional bond. Emotional messages attempt to elicit emotions that will lead to product recall and choice. Many different emotions can be connected with a product. Emotional messages are used in both consumer and business-to-business advertising. Affective message strategies help develop brand equity by creating an emotional bond with the brand.

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Affective Message Strategy (1 of 2)

Invokes feelings or emotions

Attempts to enhance likeability

Resonance Advertising

Connects with consumer experiences

Comfort marketing

Emotional Advertising

Emotions lead to recall and choice

Consumer and b-to-b markets

Leads to positive feelings

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Affective message strategies invoke feelings or emotions with the goal of enhancing likeability, recall, and comprehension. Affective strategies can be resonance or emotional. Resonance advertising connects a brand with a consumer’s experience. A new form of resonance advertising is comfort advertising. Comfort advertising encourages consumers to purchase a brand rather than a generic product because brands have stood the test of time, and consumers can take comfort in them. Emotional advertising elicits powerful emotions that lead to recall and choice. Used in both consumer and b-to-b markets, emotional advertising can lead to more positive feelings about a brand.

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Affective Message Strategy (2 of 2)

Advertisement for South Walton, Florida uses an affective message strategy

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This ad for South Walton, Florida uses an emotional affective message strategy.

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Message Strategies (3 of 3)

Conative

Encourage customer action

Support promotional efforts

Impulse buys

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Conative message strategies are designed to lead directly to some type of action or response. The strategy encourages consumers (or businesses) to act in some way, to do something like make an inquiry or access a website for more information. It can be tied with some type of promotion like a coupon, contest, or sweepstake.

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An advertisement for Cub Cadet encouraging immediate action!

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Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

This ad for Cub Cadet uses a conative message strategy because it encourages consumers to make an immediate purchase.

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Figure 6.2 The Hierarchy of Effects Model and Message Strategies

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Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Because message strategies correspond to the components of attitude, they can be matched with the different stages of the hierarchy of effects model. Cognitive strategies deal with awareness and knowledge. Affective strategies deal with emotions and the stages of liking, preference, and conviction. Conative strategies encourage action and match the purchase phase of the model.

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Figure 6.3 Types of Appeals

Fear

Humor

Sex

Music

Rationality

Emotions

Scarcity

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Advertisers have seven different types of appeals they can use. The type of appeal chosen should be based on the creative brief and the objectives of the ad campaign. If a means-end chain has been developed, then ideas on which appeal would work the best can be generated. While almost any appeal can work in any situation, some appeals would be more appropriate than others. In some cases, a particular appeal may be unacceptable to the target audience or to the client.

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Fear Appeal (1 of 2)

Fear appeals are common

Fear increases interest and is memorable

Severity and vulnerability

Severity – level of consequence

Vulnerability – probability of event occurring

Response efficacy

Intrinsic reward

Extrinsic reward

Response costs

Self-efficacy

Response efficacy

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Fear appeals are common and are used for products ranging from insurance, to home security systems, to deodorant. Fear appeals increase interest and are remembered by individuals. Severity is the level of consequence that will occur, and vulnerability is the probability of the event happening. Response efficacy is the likelihood that a change in behavior or actions will result in a desirable positive consequence. Intrinsic reward is the internal satisfaction, and extrinsic reward is the value of the event or reward received. Response cost is the cost or sacrifice the person will need to make to obtain the reward. Self-efficacy is the confidence a person has in his/her own ability to engage in the action, or to stop an undesirable behavior. All of these factors influence the effectiveness of an ad using a fear appeal.

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Figure 6.4 Behavioral Response Model

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Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The behavioral response model explains how fear appeals work. For a product such as a home security system, an ad can focus on severity, what happens when a home is broken into, or vulnerability, the probability of it actually occurring. The ad can show the negative consequences of such an event. An ad can show the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards from installing a security system. Response efficacy can be illustrated by the alarm going off when a burglar tries to enter, and the police are called. Peace of mind and security are then shown as the positive consequence.

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Fear Appeal (2 of 2)

Appeal strength

Low – not noticed

High – ignored

Moderate – works best

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This business-to-business ad uses a fear appeal with the headline “We won’t hang you out to dry.” The copy then explains what ReRez can do for a business that wants marketing research. The fear appeal is strong enough to get attention, especially the visual, but not so strong that it is ignored.

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Humor Appeal (1 of 2)

Excellent for getting and keeping attention

Used in 30% of TV and radio ads

Humor causes consumers to

Watch

Laugh

Remember

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Humor is an excellent appeal for getting and keeping someone’s attention. Humor is used in about 30% of television and radio ads. Humor causes individuals to stop what they are doing, watch, laugh at, and then remember the ad. In recall tests, consumers most often remembered humorous ads over ads with other types of appeals. The best results occur when the humor is connected naturally with the product.

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Humor Appeal (2 of 2)

Advantages of humor

Piques interest

Increases recall and comprehension

Elevates mood

Problems with humor

Offensive

Overpowers message

Humor should focus on product

International usage

Humor often rooted in culture

Humor varies across countries

Good humor difficult to achieve

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Humor appeals offer a number of advantages. Humor piques consumer interest. Humor increases recall and comprehension of ads. Humor elevates people’s moods, and if people feel good about an ad, they tend to think positively about the brand being advertised. Problems occur when the humor is offensive or overpowers the message. At times, people can recall an ad and describe it in detail, but not remember the brand being promoted. When that occurs, the ad has failed. To prevent the humor from overpowering the message, the humor should focus on the product and not stand alone. Humor is rooted in culture, so what is funny in one country is not likely to be funny in another. Good humor that is remembered and that is connected with the brand is difficult to achieve.

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Figure 6.5 Reasons for Using Humor in Ads

Captures attention

Holds attention

Often wins creative awards

High recall scores

Consumers enjoy funny ads

Evaluated as likeable ads

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Advertisers use humor because it works. It captures attention. It holds people’s attention. Humor often wins creative awards at competitions. Humor produces a high level of recall on recall tests. People enjoy humor; they like to laugh. When comparing ads, most people evaluate humorous ads as ones they like best.

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Figure 6.6 Sexuality Approaches

Subliminal techniques

Sensuality

Sexual suggestiveness

Nudity or partial nudity

Overt sexuality

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Advertisers have five different approaches they can use with sex appeal. They range from very subliminal messages to overt sexuality.

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Sex Appeal

Breaks through clutter

Use has increased

Effectiveness has declined

Advertisers shifting to more subtle sexual cues

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Sex appeals are often used to break advertising clutter. The use of sex appeals has increased in the United States and in many other countries. The problem is that sex appeals may not carry the impact they used to because children are growing up exposed to sexual themes all around them. As a result, many advertisers are moving to more subtle sexual clues and a softer sexual approach.

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Subliminal Cues Sex Appeal

Sex cues or icons placed in ads

Goal is to affect subconscious

Not effective

Ad clutter requires stronger ads to get attention

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Placing sexual cues or icons in an advertisement with the idea of affecting the subconscious is subliminal advertising. The cue or icon should not be easily noticeable. Research has shown that subliminal advertising does not work. It is not effective. If it did, there would not be a need for overt sexual advertising. Ad clutter requires stronger ads that get attention.

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Sex Appeal Approaches (1 of 2)

Sensuality

Women respond more favorably

More sophisticated

Relies on imagination

Sexual suggestiveness

Hints about sex

Sexual theme

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The sensuality approach conveys sex, but in a loving, romantic way. Women respond more favorably to a sensuous approach. It is viewed as more sophisticated and relies on a person’s imagination. Because it relies on imagination, the viewer can put their own positive spin on what they think will occur. Images of romance and love can be more enticing to viewers of an ad than raw sexuality. Sexual suggestiveness is a stronger hint about having sex, or a sexual theme. Recent ads have focused on women watching men who were shirtless or nearly nude, suggesting sexual fantasies that could occur with the man.

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Sex Appeal Approaches (2 of 2)

Nudity or partial nudity

Used for wide variety of products

Attract attention

Not always designed to elicit sexual response

Underwear commercials

Overt sexuality

Acceptable for sexually-oriented products

Used to break through ad clutter

Often used for a shock effect

Danger of being offensive

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Nudity and partial nudity is used in advertising for a variety of reasons and for a wide variety of products. Some products are related to sex, others have nothing at all to do with sex. One primary reason nudity and partial nudity is used in ads is to attraction attention. It is not always designed to elicit a sexual response. For instance, underwear commercials may be just promoting garments, not trying to convey the idea that the underwear is sexy. Overt sexuality in ads is acceptable for sexually-oriented products. It can be used to break through ad clutter. It is often used for shock value, to get people’s attention. The major danger of an overt sexual approach is that it can offend people. When that occurs, it creates a negative image and attitude towards the brand.

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Figure 6.7 Factors to Consider Before Using Decorative Models

Improves ad recognition, not brand recognition

Influences emotional and objective evaluations

Produces higher purchase intentions when the product is sexually relevant

Attractive models produce a higher level of attention than less attractive models

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Before using a decorative model, companies should consider several factors. First, using decorative models does improve ad recognition, but it does not improve brand recognition. Recalling the ad but not the brand is not good. Second, decorative models influence emotional and objective evaluations of the product for both male and female audiences. Third, decorative models produce higher purchase intentions when the product is sexually relevant. Fourth, attractive models produce higher levels of attention than less attractive models for both males and females.

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Are Sex Appeals Effective?

Increase attention

Brand recall lower

Physiological arousal

Cognitive impressions

Like versus dislike

Societal trends

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Are sex appeals effective? Ads with sexual themes do attract attention. However, brand recall may be lower. Overt sexual ads, overt sexual cues, and nudity will increase physiological arousal. The cognitive impressions made in ads with sex appeals vary depending on the viewer. If the person likes the ad, then a positive cognitive impression is made of the brand. If they dislike the ad, then a negative cognitive impression is made of the brand. Societal trends also impact the use of sex appeals, especially in global markets.

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Disadvantages of Sex Appeals

Creates dissatisfaction with one’s body

Females

Males

Stereotyping of females

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Sexual appeals in advertising are not all positive. A number of disadvantages are present. Using sex in advertising today has less influence because sex is common on television and in movies. Sexual themes interfere with brand recall and affect ad comprehension. A negative societal consequence is that such appeals may cause a greater dissatisfaction with the viewer’s own body. Females feel they are too fat. Males feel they are not strong or muscular enough. Sex appeals have also led to stereotyping problems with females.

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Criteria Ads that Objectifies Women

Badger & Winters Agency

Does woman have choice or voice?

Is she just a sexually provocative body part?

Photo manipulated?

Comfortable if sister, best friend or yourself?

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Because of criticism that ad objectifies women, Badger & Winters agency developed these four criteria. Does the woman have a choice or voice in the situation? Is she posed in a sexually provocative way that she is a mere body part? Has the image been manipulated or modified where it does not look humanly achievable? Would you be comfortable seeing your sister, friend or yourself in the ad?

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Music Appeals (1 of 3)

Connects with emotions and memories

Has intrusive value

Gains attention

Increases the retention of visual information

Better recall

Can increase persuasiveness

Stored in long-term memory

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Music is an important part of advertising. It connects with emotions and generates memories. It has intrusive value and gets attention. Music increases the retention of visual information. It produces higher recall scores and can increase persuasiveness. Music tends to be stored in long-term memory, and consumers often tie particular music to a specific brand of product.

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Music Appeals (2 of 3)

Variety of roles in advertisements

Incidental to ad

Primary theme

Selecting the music

Familiar tune

Write a jingle

Background or mood music

Solicit music for an advertisement

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Music can play a variety of roles in ads. It can be incidental to the ad, hardly noticed by viewers, or it can be the central theme of the ad. The role it will assume impacts the type of music that will be selected. Advertisers can use a familiar tune, or they can write a jingle or new song. Music can be for background purposes or to create a certain mood as the ad progresses. In recent years, advertisers have solicited musicians to create songs for ads rather than purchasing familiar tunes and adapting them to the ad.

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Music Appeals (3 of 3)

Advantages of music appeals

Consumers have affinity with existing songs

Brand awareness, brand equity, and brand loyalty become easier

Emotional affinity transference to brand

Popular songs expensive

Alternative methods

Musicians see ad songs as way to be heard

Songs posted on YouTube and other sites

Occasionally full song becomes popular

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Music appeals offer a number of advantages. Consumers have an affinity with existing songs, so when an existing song is used, consumers have already heard it and most have developed emotions with it. Brand awareness, brand equity, and brand loyalty become easier with music appeals. Even for new songs such as “It Doesn’t Get Better Than This”, consumers transfer affinity and positive feelings from the song to the brand. One reason mcgarrybowen sent a creative brief to musicians and asked them to write a song is that to purchase the rights to current popular songs can be extremely expensive. Musicians have become more open to writing and performing songs for ads. It is a way to be heard. Songs are often posted on YouTube and other sites. Occasionally, the full song version of a tune written for an ad will become popular and move to radio stations and other popular music outlets.

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Rational Appeals

Based on hierarchy of effects model

Active processing of information

Media outlets

Print media and Internet best mediums

Business-to-business

Print media, trade publications

Information search by buying center members

Product attributes

Complex and high involvement products

If processed, excellent at changing attitudes

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Rational appeals are based on the hierarchy of effects model and the sequence of steps outlined in the model. It implies active processing of information. Rational appeals work best for print ads where longer copy can be inserted and online where there is very little limit to what copy can be inserted. Rational appeals are common in business-to-business ads, again in print media, especially trade publications. When members of the buying center are searching for information, ads using rational appeals can be effective. Rational appeals work well for complex and high involvement products. If a person processes the information in a rational ad, it is excellent at changing attitudes. The key is will consumers stop and look or listen to the ad and process the information?

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Figure 6.8 Reasons for Using Emotional Appeals

Consumers ignore most ads

Rational ads go unnoticed

Emotion captures attention

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Emotional appeals are often used because consumers tend to ignore ads, and emotional themes tend to be noticed more. Rational appeals, especially, are often ignored unless the person is in the market for that particular product.

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Emotional Appeals

Brand loyalty

Key to developing brand loyalty

Creates bond with brand

Business-to-Business

Used more frequently (25%)

Emotions important in business decisions

Media outlets

Television best medium

Internet

Work well when tied with other appeals

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Most advertising creatives believe that emotions are the key to developing brand loyalty. Emotions and feelings will create bonds with a brand. Emotional appeals are becoming more common in B-to-B advertising and are now used in about 25% of all business ads. The rationale is that business buyers are people also, and even in business decisions, emotions are an important component. Emotional appeals work really well for television where people can see and hear the emotions. They also work well on the Internet. Emotional appeals work well with other types of appeals and are often combined with other appeals like humor.

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Scarcity Appeals

Based on limited supply

Based on limited time to purchase

Often tied with promotion tools such as contests, sweepstakes, and coupons

Encourage customers to take action

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Scarcity appeals urge consumers to make a purchase now because of some type of limitation. Often that limitation is a limited supply, which means products must be purchased before they are all gone. It can be based on limited time. You only have 5 days or one week, or just one hour. Scarcity appeals are often tied to other promotions such as contests, sweepstakes, and coupons. The concept is to encourage customers to take action immediately, or it will be too late.

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Figure 6.10 Executional Frameworks

Animation

Slice-of-life

Storytelling

Testimonial

Authoritative

Demonstration

Fantasy

Informative

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An executional framework signifies the manner in which an advertising appeal will be presented. It should be chosen in conjunction with an advertising appeal and a message strategy. There are eight different executions that can be used. While almost any execution can be used with any appeal and message strategy, there are logical combinations, and there are some combinations that do not work well together. For instance, a common …