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Chapter21.pptx

Fundamentals of Kinesiology

Chapter Two

In this chapter we are going to learn the field of kinesiology and how its sub-disciplines have contributed to our understanding of exercise, fitness, and maximizing performance. We will know about the shifting paradigm of the promotion of public health benefits through physical activity, the concepts and principles of exercise training, the general health, fitness, and performance effects of physical activity and exercise. Finally we will learn how to integrate the principles of traditional exercise prescription programming for individuals into physical activity and exercise plans for populations.

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Fundamentals of Kinesiology

Kinesiology sub-disciplines contribute to our understanding of:

Exercise, fitness, and maximizing performance

We are in a shifting paradigm of the promotion of public health benefits through physical activity

Applying concepts and principles of exercise training, the general health, fitness, and performance effects of physical activity and exercise

How to integrate the principles of traditional exercise prescription programming for individuals into physical activity and exercise plans for populations

Key Terms

Physical Activity

Any bodily movement that results in energy expenditure (i.e., burning of calories )

Exercise

Specific type of physical activity that is planed, repetitive, and done for a specific purpose

Physical Fitness

A set of measurable physiological parameter

Definitions for terms like physical activity, exercise, physical fitness, health-related fitness, and skill-related fitness are all important to understand and to use for effective communication in the field of physical activity and public health. Any type of bodily movement that results in energy expenditure is named as physical activity whereas exercise refers to specific type of activity that is planned and is done for specific purpose for example working out in a gym would be an example of exercise and getting groceries out from the car trunk would be an example for physical activity. Physical fitness is little bit different than physical activity and exercise. It has been described as a set of attributes a person has or wants to achieve. These attributes relate to a person’s ability and or capacity to perform a specific type of physical activity efficiently and effectively, for example the fitness requirement for tennis.

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Health-Related Fitness

Attributes that are thought to be related to improved health (e.g., reductions in chronic diseases, injuries, and rates of disability)

Components

Aerobic capacity

Muscular Strength

Muscular Endurance

Flexibility

Body Composition

Skill-Related Fitness

Attributes that are most important for successful movement and sport participation

Components

Balance

Agility

Coordination

Power

Speed

Physical Fitness

Physical fitness could be either health related or skill related. Health related ones are thought to improve health such as to reduce the incidence of chronic disease or disability. Skill related ones are thought to be important for movement and sport participation. Each one of these has some further components.

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Addresses the interrelationship of physiological processes and the anatomy of the body with respect to movement.

Includes

Sciences of exercise physiology

The movement sciences

Sport and exercise psychology

Kinesiology

The study of kinesiology includes the major exercise sciences of exercise physiology, the movement sciences, and sport and exercise psychology. An understanding and integration of multiple kinesiology sub-disciplines will help practitioners be successful at developing physical activity and exercise plans to promote and achieve public health goals.

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The Study of how the body structures and functions are altered by acute bouts of exercise or physical activity, and how the body adapts to the chronic stress of physical training

Explain the role of physical activity and exercise in diseases prevention and rehabilitation.

Addresses issues in developing and promoting public health policies

Exercise Physiology

Exercise physiology explains the role of physical activity and exercise in disease prevention and rehabilitation. Having the root in basic concepts of ancient Greek and Roman physician and scientist, exercise physiology now addresses a spectrum issues ranging from molecular mechanism of physical activity & exercise to promoting public health policies.

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The study of motor learning, motor control, and biomechanics. Include

Motor learning

Study of learning and performing motor skills such as dancing and cycling

Motor control

Study of human information processing and the integration of motor movements that involve motor planning and execution

Biomechanics

Study of physics applied to the understanding of movement in living organisms.

Movement Science

Movement science include study of three concepts-motor learning that is how we perform motor skill or learn, motor control that is how information system of human body process and integrate motor movements, and biomechanics that is how the study of physics could be applied in the understanding of movement of living organism.

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Study of behaviors and outcomes related to participation in sports or programs of exercise training.

Sport and exercise psychology theories are important to promote health behavior change

Social cognitive model

Sport and Exercise Psychology

In sport and exercise physiology, the concern is to study the behaviors and outcomes that relate to participation in sports and exercise training program Currently researchers in physical activity and public health applies behavioral models such as the transtheoretical models of behavior change and the social cognitive model.

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Sport and Exercise Psychology

Trans theoretical model of behavior change

Health behavior change involves progress through six stages of change: Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination

Training Theory and Principles

FITT

Frequency- How often you exercise

Intensity-How hard you exercise

Time-How long you exercise

Type-What kind of exercise you choose

Factors

Practical goal setting Genetics and individual variation

Motivation Teaching model

Fitness evaluation Progress overload

Specificity Modification

Periodization Overtraining

Detraining Recovery

Compliance

Principals of Exercise Training, Prescription, And Planning

An understanding and application of training theory can help practitioners understand traditional training models designed for maximizing performance versus new strategies for developing physical activity and exercise plans for promoting positive health outcomes. Exercise training or physical fitness programs often base on the FITT concept. FITT stand for frequency, intensity, time and type of exercise. A variety of factors or principals should be taken into consideration in order to realize adaptation. Refer to page 23 of your text book for a detailed discussion on the factors that influence FITT principle.

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Dose -response refers to the amount of physical activity or exercise needed for achieving health, fitness or performance goals.

Can be measured in terms of the frequency, duration , and intensity of PA/exercise

Or the total volume of work

MET = metabolic equivalent. It is resting energy expenditure for the same average person

Gross Energy Expenditure = physical activity or exercise energy requirements with resting energy expenditure

Net Energy Expenditure =solely the physical activity or exercise energy requirement

Volume and Dose-Response

The volume of physical activity and exercise significantly affects dose-response health benefits. Dose response can be measured in terms of the frequency, duration, and intensity of physical activity or exercise or the total volume of work. Let us familiarize ourselves with some keywords of exercise science which are MET, Gross Energy Expenditure, and Net energy Expenditure. MET stands for metabolic equivalent . 1 MET is equal to the resting energy expenditure for the same average person. Gross energy expenditure refers to physical activity or exercise energy requirements with resting energy expenditure and net energy expenditure reflects just the physical activity or exercise energy requirement.

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Types of Physical Activity

Physical Activity

Anaerobic PA (sprints/resistance training)

Aerobic PA (cycling)

Combined PA (soccer & tennis)

Static PA = isometric (handgrip strength)

Dynamic PA = muscle shortening & lengthening

Anaerobic Power – short burst, high intensity (less than 15 seconds)

Aerobic Power - short burst, high intensity (15 seconds to 3 mins)

A broader classification of physical activity (PA) {note for the audio person: from now on physical activity will be written as PA, please make sure to say physical activity when you see PA} could be Anaerobic, Aerobic , or combined and as either static or dynamic. It could be also classified based on intensity and duration which are anaerobic power and aerobic power. Anaerobic activities refer to energy producing reactions in the body that do not require oxygen. Examples of anaerobic activities are 100 meter sprints or resistance training. Aerobic activities require the use of large oxidative systems which improves cardio respiratory endurance such as cycling for 30 minutes. Combined physical movements require significant contribution from both aerobic and anaerobic energy sources such happens in sports like soccer or tennis. Static PA/exercise is anaerobic and requires an increase in force production with limited range of motion. Dynamic PA/exercise requires muscle shortening and muscle lengthening movements. Aerobic power activities involve short-burst, high-intensity movements that last less than 15 seconds and this is highly related with the genetic and muscle composition of a person. Anaerobic power activities are also short-burst, high-intensity movements but they last from 15 seconds up to 3 minutes.

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Primary FITT variable that affects the total calorie expenditure of physical activity or exercise when the duration is held constant

Measured per minute, hour, day or per week

Classification of Intensity

Intensity

Moderate = working between 3 and 5.9 METs

Vigorous = working at greater than 6 METs

Absolute = kcals/min or jogging 5 mi/hr

Relative = % of aerobic power or VO2 max

The intensity of physical activity and exercise when duration is held constant is the most important FITT variable relative to caloric expenditure (volume) per minute, per hour, per day, or per week. Intensities are often classified in absolute terms (i.e., energy or work required to do an activity without accounting for the person’s physiological capacity) or relative terms (i.e., taking into account the person’s exercise capacity, such as a percentage of aerobic capacity).Moderate-intensity physical activity or exercise is categorized as working between 3 and 5.9 METs whereas vigorous-intensity physical activity is defined as working at greater than 6 METs. The amount of physical activity and exercise performed can be determined by using the absolute intensity or relative intensity, the time or duration, and the frequency.

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Percentage of Maximal Heart Rate(MHR)

Aerobic method

Maximal Heart Rate =220-age

Moderate exercise intensity: 50 to 70 percent of your maximum heart rate

Vigorous exercise intensity: 70 to 85 percent of your maximum heart rate

Convenient method for beginners who are at higher health risk

Target Heart Rate Ranges

Intensity Measurement

The common anaerobic and aerobic methods used for determining intensity for PA or exercise prescription will be discussed in next couple of slides. The first in these categories is percentage of maximal heart rate which is a convenient method for beginners who are at higher health risk. MHR is calculated in 2 steps, first MHR is equal to 220-age and then multiplying the result with desired intensity percentage. Target heart rate is also an aerobic method where MHR reserve is obtained from subtracting MHR from resting heart rate and then following the steps of multiplying the result with desired intensity percentage and adding the resting heart rate. This method is convenient for people who do regular exercise and at low health risk.

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Metabolic Equivalent (MET)

Aerobic method

Equal to the resting energy expenditure for a person

1 MET=3.5 ml kg-1 min-1

Percentage of Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2 max)

Intensity for PA/exercise can be measured based on the percentage of individual’s/population’s maximal oxygen uptake

Kilocalories/minute or /hour

Aerobic method, used frequently in weight loss and weight maintenance programs

Determine total kcals expended for a bout of PA/exercise based on the factor that

Based on factor that 1 liter of consumed oxygen ~ 5kcals/min

This method is used frequently in weight loss and weight maintenance programs

Intensity Measurement

We have already discussed about MET previously so let’s focus on VO2 max and Kilocalories/minute or/hour. VO2 max sates that intensity for PA/exercise can be measured based on the percentage of individual’s/population’s maximal oxygen uptake and Kilocalories/minute or/hour method s determine total kcals expended for a bout of PA/exercise based on the factor that 1 liter of consumed oxygen ~ 5kcals/min. This method is used frequently in weight loss and weight maintenance programs.

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Perceived Exertion Scales And The Talk Test

Evaluation of how hard someone is working

Determination whether they can carry on a conversation at a given intensity of work

OMNI-Walk/Run Scale for adults.

Intensity Measurement

In perceived talk test people evaluate how hard they are working, or determine whether they can carry on a conversation at a given intensity of work. The figure here is showing a PE scale named as OMNI-WALK/Run scale for adults. It is a simple way to rate physical activity and exercise intensity.

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Repetition Maximum

Anaerobic method

Used for resistance training program

Maximum weight a person can lift one time known as 1-repetition maximum(1RM)

Absolute strength

Relative strength is equal to 1RM/body weight

Workload

Anaerobic method

Consider factors that affect resistance exercise like speed, muscular strength, muscular power, muscular endurance and the specific muscle groups that affect resistance exercise

Intensity Measurement

The other two methods for measuring intensity are repetition maximum and workload. Repetition Maximum is an anaerobic method that is used for resistance training program. In this method maximum weight a person can lift one time known as 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Repetition maximum is further divided in absolute strength and relative strength. Workload is another anaerobic method that consider factors like speed, muscular strength, muscular power, muscular endurance and the specific muscle groups that affect resistance exercise

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Time and Frequency

Table 2.2 and 2.3 provide some general recommendation based on traditional exercise programs for determining the time and the frequency of types of physical activity and exercise activities.

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Applying Physical activity and Exercise Training Principles

Practical Goal Setting

Needs Assessment

Practical and achievable goals

Should achieve the minimum recommendation of 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

Practical goal setting depends on thorough need assessment and having practical and achievable goals. A good goal should achieve the minimum recommendation of 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

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Motivation refers to the importance of the behavioral reinforcement that promote regular PA or exercise

Teaching Model = Practitioners need to be the effective teachers by using educational strategies or logic models. Simple teaching or interaction between practitioner and the target population can maximize the factors that would positively promote PA.

Motivation refers to the importance of the behavioral reinforcement that promote regular PA or exercise. Teaching model illustrate the need for the practitioner to be the effective teachers by using educational strategies or logic models. Simple teaching or interaction between practitioner and the target population can maximize the factors that would positively promote PA.

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Fitness Evaluation

Evaluation of Fitness level prior to PA/exercise program is crucial for determining effectiveness

Progressive Overload

Gradual increase in physical stress

Increase in FITT variables

Improvements in health and fitness

Evaluation of Fitness level prior to PA/exercise program is crucial for determining effectiveness of the exercise program. The progressive overload principle refers to the fact that improvements in health and physical fitness are directly related with FITT variables. Gradual increase in the physical stress on the body will increase the FITT variables that will in turn improve in health and fitness.

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Specificity

Adjust FITT variable for the desired population

Modifications

Base on individual , population, and environmental changes

Minimize the risk of complete relapse

Periodization

Cycling the FITT variables, volume of physical activity and exercise, and recovery time.

Normal periodization plans include an initial stage, a plateau stage, and an improvement stage.

Other principles of exercise training programs are specificity, modifications, periodization, overtraining, detraining, recovery and compliance and adherence.

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Overtraining

Doing too much PA or exercise without taking the time to appropriate recovery

Important to recognize the signs of addiction to exercise and to take short break

Detraining

Loss of health or fitness following the cessation of a regular program of PA/exercise

Extreme example of detraining is Bed rest

Recovery

The rate at which people or populations can recover in influenced by FITT variables.

Compliance and Adherence

People’s ability to continue to participate in regular PA/exercise programming.

Each of this principles is crucial in determining the effectiveness of any PA/exercise program for the target population.

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