Hepatitis C

profileOrlilu7
Chain_of_Infection.ppt

The Chain of Infection

*

As healthcare professionals, it is important to understand two things about infection:

*

the various ways infection can be transmitted

2. the ways the infection chain can be broken

*

There are six links
in the chain of infection :

*

1st - The Infectious Agent

-any disease-causing microorganism (pathogen)

*

2nd - The Reservoir Host

-the organism in which the infectious microbes reside

*

Hosts that do not show any outward signs or symptoms of a disease but are still capable of transmitting the disease are known as carriers.

What are “Carrier Hosts”

*

3rd - The Portal of Exit

-route of escape of the pathogen from the reservoir.

Examples: respiratory secretions, blood exposure, breaks in skin

*

4th - The Route of Transmission

-method by which the pathogen gets from the reservoir to the new host

*

Transmission may occur through:

direct contact

*

air

*

insects

*

5th - The Portal of Entry

-route through which the pathogen enters its new host

*

Respiratory System

inhalation

*

Gastrointestinal System

ingestion

*

Urinary & Reproductive Tracts

Sexual contact

*

Breaks in Protective Skin Barrier

*

6th - The Susceptible Host

-the organism that accepts the pathogen

The support of pathogen life & its reproduction depend on the degree of the host’s resistance.

*

Organisms with strong immune systems are better able to fend off pathogens.

*

Organisms with weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to the support & reproduction of pathogens.

*

-The essential part of patient care & self-protection.

How to interrupt the chain of infection:

*

1. Pathogen Identification

-identification of infectious agent & appropriate treatment

*

2. Asepsis & Hygiene

-potential hosts & carriers must practice asepsis & maintain proper personal hygiene

*

3. Control Portals of Exit

-healthcare personnel must practice standard precautions:

*

(Control body secretions & wash hands according to protocol.)

*

4. Prevent a Route of Transmission

-prevent direct or indirect contact by:

  • Proper handwashing
  • Disinfection & sterilization techniques
  • Isolation of infected patients
  • Not working when contagious

*

5. Protect Portal of Entry

-Health professionals must make sure that ports of entry are not subjected to pathogens.

(nose, mouth, eyes, urinary tract, open wounds, etc.)

*

6. Recognition of Susceptible Host

-health professionals must recognize & protect high-risk patients

*

  • Cancer Patients
  • AIDS Patients
  • Transplant Patients
  • Infant & Elderly Patients

*

Remember--breaking the chain of

infection is the responsibility

of each health professional.

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*