Discussion 3


Chapter Seven


Operational Definitions

Health information is data related to medical history.

Health information records include history, lab results, diagnostic information, and notes.

It creates data sets that are used for individuals and populations.

Operational Definitions

Health information management (H IM) includes obtaining, using, and protecting both digital and traditional patient information.

Professionals in each IM manage patient records.

They also are part of quality measurement including accreditation.

Operational Definitions

Health information technology (HIT) assists the exchange of health information through electronic systems.

HIT is used extensively in health care.

Privacy and security are important. HIT issues.

Operational Definitions

WHO defines the functions of HIT as data generation, compilation, analysis, synthesis, and communication.


Health care is making progress in addressing DV.

Guidelines for treatment now exist.

Initiatives include awareness, guidelines, and strategies for response.

The ACA requires screening and counseling.


Practitioners need to increase their awareness of diagnoses concerning DV.

They also must confront their own feelings and beliefs about domestic violence and its victims.

Ethical Dilemmas

Protection of privacy is a major ethical dilemma in HIM.

Access to medical records must balance privacy and equity.

Violation of privacy personal gain is a serious concern for health care.

Ethical Dilemmas

Conspiracy to commit PHI fraud for personal gain is both a legal and ethical issue.

These crimes harm individuals, organizations, and taxpayers.

Ethical Dilemmas

Failures to communicate about computers and their appropriate, use exists across generations.

Computers enable people to assume a different personality.

Computers also let people disregard their ethics foundations.

Ethical Dilemmas

Ethics professional societies encourage the development and use of codes of ethics.

However, those without a moral compass forget about ethics in their eat actions.

Individuals make decisions about their conduct in the cyber community.

Ethical Dilemmas

Examples of theft can also relate to the ethics and the Internet.

Ransomware is a type of computer software (malware) that infects computers, servers, and systems.

Ransomware makes files unreadable.

Ethical Dilemmas

Cyber attackers use extortion to receive a ransom for returning access to information.

Computer should not be in an environment for criminal attack.

Protection of information systems requires action including making it difficult for hackers to have access.

Smart Phone Networks

Smart phones collect and store large amounts of personal data.

From an ethics view, users agreed to this collection of data through apps.

The U.S. government does not vet health applications.

Many issues exist for the protection of privacy and health apps.

Ethics Decision-Making Models

The "3 rules of thumb" model is a foundation for decision-making.

Weber suggests that individual rights should be a priority.

The next consideration should be the good of the community and its interests.

Ethics Decision-Making Models

The Weber model than considers the good of the organization and its interests.

Lastly, individual good, and interests should be considered.

The Weber model helps to establish priorities in ethics decision-making.

Ethics Decision-Making Models

The "grandmother test" is also useful as a guide. Can you tell your grandmother about your decision?

Would she approve of this decision?

Decision-making models need to be part of education and healthcare organization ethics resources.

In Summary…