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Managing and Using Information Systems: A Strategic Approach – Sixth Edition

Keri Pearlson, Carol Saunders, and Dennis Galletta

© Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 1 The Information Systems Strategy Triangle

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Kaiser Permanente (KP) Opening Case

What was KP’s business strategy in 2015?

On what were bonuses to doctors based under the “fix me” system?

What would the new idea be called instead of a “fix me” system?

What is the new basis for end-of-year bonuses?

What goal alignment has helped KP’s success?

What IS components are part of this?

Could only the IS components be changed to achieve their success?

Could only the strategy be changed to achieve their success?

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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To promote better health care at lower cost

Billings

Proactive health system

Improved health of patients

Alignment between business strategy, organizational design, and information systems strategy

Fast communication with patients outside of face-to-face appointments; automatic email reminders to patients for exercise or medications

No, the business strategy must be aligned with the IS, in addition to incentives

No, without the new incentives and new IS, employees would not wish to cooperate, nor would they be able to do so.

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The Information Systems Strategy Triangle

These need to be balanced.

Business Strategy

Organizational Strategy

Information Strategy

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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What is a “Strategy?”

Coordinated set of actions to fulfill objectives, purposes, or goals

It sets limits on what the organization seeks to accomplish

Starts with a mission

Company Mission Statement
Zappos  To provide the best customer service possible. Internally we call this our WOW philosophy.
Amazon  We seek to be Earth’s most customer-centric company for three primary customer sets: consumer customers, seller customers and developer customers.
L.L. Bean  Sell good merchandise at a reasonable profit, treat your customers like human beings and they will always come back for more.

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Business Strategy

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What is a business strategy?

It is where a business seeks to go and how it expects to get there

It is not a business model, although it includes business models as one component of a business strategy

Business models include subscriptions, advertising, licenses, etc.

Business models do not include where the business seeks to go, and only the revenue portion of how it expects to get there

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Generic Strategies Framework

Michael Porter: How businesses can build a competitive advantage

Three primary strategies for achieving competitive advantage:

Cost leadership – lowest-cost producer.

Differentiation – product is unique.

Focus – limited scope – can accomplish this via cost leadership or differentiation within the segment

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© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Three Strategies for Achieving Competitive Advantage

  Strategic Advantage
Strategic Target Uniqueness Perceived by Customer Low Cost Position
Industry Wide Differentiation Cost Leadership
Particular Segment Only Focus

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Three Strategies for Achieving Competitive Advantage Examples

  Strategic Advantage
Strategic Target Uniqueness Perceived by Customer Low Cost Position
Industry Wide Differentiation Cost Leadership
Particular Segment Only Focus

Apple

Wal-Mart

Marriott

Ritz Carlton

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Dynamic Strategies

Beware of Hypercompetition

Can lead to a “red ocean” environment

Cutthroat competition – zero sum game

Every advantage is eroded—becoming a cost.

Sustaining an advantage can be a deadly distraction from creating new ones.

D’Avenis says: Goal of advantage should be disruption, not sustainability

Initiatives are achieved through series of small steps. Get new advantage before old one erodes.

Better to adopt a “blue ocean” strategy

Change the industry; create new segments/products

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© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Creative Destruction

GE’s Approach under Jack Welch

Ask people to imagine how to destroy and grow your business

DYB: Imagine how competitors would want to destroy your business.

GYB: Counteract that by growing the business in some way to:

Reach new customers/markets

Better serve existing customers

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Summary

Strategic Approach Key Idea Application to Information Systems
Porter’s generic strategies Firms achieve competitive advantage through cost leadership, differentiation, or focus. Understanding which strategy is chosen by a firm is critical to choosing IS to complement the strategy.
Dynamic environment strategies Speed, agility, and aggressive moves and countermoves by a firm create competitive advantage. The speed of change is too fast for manual response making IS critical to achieving business goals.

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Organizational Strategy

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Organizational Strategy

What is organizational strategy?

Organizational design and

Choices about work processes

How do you manage organizational, control, and cultural variables?

Managerial Levers

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© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Managerial Levers

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Information Systems Strategy

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IS Strategy

What is an IS Strategy? - The plan an organization uses in providing information services.

Four key IS infrastructure components

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© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Information systems strategy matrix.

  What Who Where
Hardware The physical devices of the system System users and managers Physical location of devices (cloud, datacenter, etc.)
Software The programs, applications, and utilities System users and managers The hardware it resides on and physical location of that hardware
Networking The way hardware is connected to other hardware, to the Internet and to other outside networks. System users and managers; company that provides the service Where the nodes, wires, and other transport media are
Data Bits of information stored in the system Owners of data; data administrators Where the information resides

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Second level

Third level

Fourth level

Fifth level

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What Who Where
Hardware Laptops, servers to store info and back up laptops Consultants have laptops, managed by the IS Dept. Laptops are mobile; servers are centralized
Software Office suite; collaboration tools Software is on consultants’ laptops but managed centrally Much resides on laptops; some only resides on servers
Networking Internet; hard wired connections in office; remote lines from home, satellite, or client offices ISP offers service; Internal IS group provides servers and access Global access is needed; Nodes are managed by ISPs
Data Work done for clients; personnel data Data owned by firm but made available to consultants as needed Resides on cloud and copies “pulled” into laptops as needed.

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Illustration in a Consulting Firm

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Second level

Third level

Fourth level

Fifth level

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One IS Strategy: Social Strategy

Collaboration

Extend the reach of stakeholders to find and connect with one-another

Engagement

Involve stakeholders in the business via blogs; communities

Innovation

Identify, describe, prioritize new ideas

© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Managing and Using Information Systems: A Strategic Approach – Sixth Edition

Keri Pearlson, Carol Saunders, and Dennis Galletta

© Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.