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BusinessCommunication_Buildin-LockerKitty.pdf

Sixth Edition

Kitty O. Locker Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek

ISBN 978-0-07-340326-7 MHID 0-07-340326-1

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We listened to the increasing demand for more flexibility with teaching materials. This modular format was created to cater to the way in which instructors teach, and students learn.

Through the author’s modular approach, instructors have the freedom to customize their text and assignments piece-by-piece. By breaking chapters into more manageable, topic-focused sections, instructors have the flexibility to cover and assign the content they want, in the or- der they want to better suit their individual teaching styles.

Instead of losing students in chapters that are long, unspecific, or out of order, with this book students move toward an understanding of the foundations and piece together the critical skills needed to become suc- cessful communicators in the Business Communication field.

www.mhhe.com/lockerbcs6e

www.mhhe.comwww.domorenow.com

WHY 30 MODULAR CHAPTERS?

FREEDOM � � �t � � �FLEX IB IL ITY � � �t � � �FOCUSED CLASSROOM

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Communication BUILDING CRITICAL SKILLS

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Module 1 Sentence Fragments 18

Module 2 Comma Splices 36

Module 3 Using Idioms 58

Module 4 Using Spell and Grammar Checkers 72

Module 5 Active and Passive Voice 86

Module 6 It’s/Its 100

Module 7 Singular and Plural Possessives 111

Module 8 Plurals and Possessives 122

Module 9 Making Subjects and Verbs Agree 141

Module 10 Dangling Modifiers 163

Module 11 Parallel Structure 186

Module 12 Expressing Personality 215

Module 13 Making Nouns and Pronouns Agree 235

Module 14 Matters on Which Experts Disagree 255

Module 15 Run-On Sentences 269

Module 16 Commas in Lists 285

Module 17 Combining Sentences 295

Module 18 Delivering Criticism 311

Module 19 Hyphens and Dashes 323

Module 20 Choosing Levels of Formality 339

Module 21 Mixing Verb Tenses 357

Module 22 Using MLA Style 375

Module 23 Being Concise 390

Module 24 Improving Paragraphs 414

Module 25 Writing Subject Lines and Headings 435

Module 26 Using Details 448

Module 27 Proofreading 472

Module 28 Using You and I 489

Module 29 Using a Dictionary 506

Module 30 Who/Whom and I/Me 513

WHY 30 MODULAR CHAPTERS?

FREEDOM � � �t � � �FLEX IB IL ITY � � �t � � �FOCUSED CLASSROOM

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Module 1 Sentence Fragments 18

Module 2 Comma Splices 36

Module 3 Using Idioms 58

Module 4 Using Spell and Grammar Checkers 72

Module 5 Active and Passive Voice 86

Module 6 It’s/Its 100

Module 7 Singular and Plural Possessives 111

Module 8 Plurals and Possessives 122

Module 9 Making Subjects and Verbs Agree 141

Module 10 Dangling Modifiers 163

Module 11 Parallel Structure 186

Module 12 Expressing Personality 215

Module 13 Making Nouns and Pronouns Agree 235

Module 14 Matters on Which Experts Disagree 255

Module 15 Run-On Sentences 269

Module 16 Commas in Lists 285

Module 17 Combining Sentences 295

Module 18 Delivering Criticism 311

Module 19 Hyphens and Dashes 323

Module 20 Choosing Levels of Formality 339

Module 21 Mixing Verb Tenses 357

Module 22 Using MLA Style 375

Module 23 Being Concise 390

Module 24 Improving Paragraphs 414

Module 25 Writing Subject Lines and Headings 435

Module 26 Using Details 448

Module 27 Proofreading 472

Module 28 Using You and I 489

Module 29 Using a Dictionary 506

Module 30 Who/Whom and I/Me 513

WHY 30 MODULAR CHAPTERS?

FREEDOM � � �t � � �FLEX IB IL ITY � � �t � � �FOCUSED CLASSROOM

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Business Communication BUILD ING CR IT ICAL SK ILLS

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Sixth Edition

Kitty O. Locker The Ohio State University

Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek Columbus State Community College

Business Communication BUILD ING CR IT ICAL SK ILLS

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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: BUILDING CRITICAL SKILLS, SIXTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY, 10020. Copyright © 2014 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2011, 2009, and 2007. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOW/DOW 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

ISBN 978-0-07-340326-7 MHID 0-07-340326-1

Senior Vice President, Products & Markets: Kurt L. Strand Vice President, Content Production & Technology Services: Kimberly Meriwether David Managing Director: Paul Ducham Senior Brand Manager: Anke Braun Weekes Executive Director of Development: Ann Torbert Development Editor II: Kelly I. Pekelder Executive Marketing Manager: Michael Gedatus Content Project Manager: Pat Frederickson Senior Buyer: Michael R. McCormick Lead Designer: Matthew Baldwin Interior Design: Matthew Baldwin Cover Design: Laurie Entringer Cover Images: ©Stockbyte/Getty Images/Design Pics/Blend Images/Ingram Publishing/AGE Fotostock Lead Content Licensing Specialist: Keri Johnson Photo Researcher: Teri Stratford/Six Cats Research Media Project Manager: Joyce J. Chappetto Typeface: 10/12 Times Roman Compositor: Laserwords Private Limited Printer: R. R. Donnelley

All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

CIP has been applied for.

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill, and McGraw-Hill does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

www.mhhe.com

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As revision to the third edition of BCS neared completion, Dr. Kitty O. Locker passed away. She was a mentor for many years, and I will cherish all that she taught me. Kitty’s contributions to teaching and to business communication are far too extensive for proper recognition here. So, it is simply on behalf of the students and colleagues whose lives she touched that I make this special dedication to my friend.

Kitty, you are missed.

Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek

To my husband, Bob Mills, with love. —Kitty O. Locker

For my father, who always believed in me. —Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek

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Kitty O. Locker was an Associate Professor of English at The Ohio State University, where she taught courses in workplace discourse and research methods. She had taught as Assistant Professor at Texas A&M University and the University of Illinois at Urbana.

She received her BA from DePauw University and her MA and Ph.D. from the Univer- sity of Illinois at Urbana.

She had also written Business and Administrative Communication (7th ed., McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2005) and The Irwin Business Communication Handbook: Writing and Speaking in Business Classes (1993), and co-edited Conducting Research in Business Communication (1988).

Her consulting clients included URS Greiner, Abbott Laboratories, the Ohio Civil Ser- vice Employees Association, AT&T, and the American Medical Association. She devel- oped a complete writing improvement program for Joseph T. Ryerson, the nation’s largest steel materials service center.

In 1994–95, she served as President of the Association for Business Communication (ABC). From 1997 to 2000, she edited ABC’s Journal of Business Communication. She received ABC’s Outstanding Researcher Award in 1992 and ABC’s Meada Gibbs Out- standing Teacher Award in 1998.

Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek is a Professor of English at Columbus State Community College and a consultant to business and industry. He teaches courses in business communication, composition, creative writing, freshman experience, film and literature, globalization and culture, and public relations, and he co-advises the Phi Theta Kappa chapter at Columbus State. Steve has also taught at The Ohio State University and Ohio Dominican University. He received an MA in English and BAs in journalism and English from Ohio State.

Steve has presented papers at conferences of the Association for Business Communica- tion (ABC), the College English Association of Ohio (CEAO), the Conference on College Composition and Communication, and the Northeast Modern Language Association. He has served on ABC’s Two-Year College Committee and its Diversity Committee, as well as on the CEAO Executive Council. His freelance articles have appeared in a variety of print and web publications, and he is a book reviewer for The Ohioana Quarterly and The Columbus Dispatch.

Steve’s consulting clients include Nationwide Insurance, The Ohio Historical Society, The Ohio Association of Historical Societies and Museums, The Ohio Museums Asso- ciation, Red Capital Mortgage Group, United Energy Systems, The Thomas Moyer for Chief Justice of Ohio Campaign, and Van Meter and Associates. He also advises individual clients on job search and interviewing techniques and is a reader for the College Board’s Advanced Placement Examination in English Language.

Prior to joining Columbus State, Steve managed staff development and information for the Franklin County, Ohio, Commissioners. He has received an Award of Excellence from the National Association of County Information Officers, as well as awards for his writing projects.

About the Authors

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About the Authors vii

August 20, 2012

Dear Student:

Business Communication: Building Critical Skills helps you build the writing, speaking, and listening skills that are crucial for success in the 21st-century workplace.

As you read,

• Look for the answers to each module’s questions. Check your memory with the Instant Replays and your understanding with the Summary of Learning Objectives at the end of the chapter.

• Note the terms in bold type and their definitions. Use the rewind and fast forward icons to go to discussions of terms. • Read the Building a Critical Skill boxes carefully. Practice the skills both in assignments and on your own. These skills will serve you well for the rest of your work life.

• Use items in the lists when you prepare your assignments or review for tests.

• Use the examples, especially the paired examples of effective and ineffective communication, as models to help you draft and revise. Comments in red ink signal problems in an example; comments in blue ink note things done well.

• Read the Site to See and FYI boxes in the margins to give you more resources on the Internet and interesting facts about business communication.

When you prepare an assignment,

• Review the PAIBOC questions in Module 1. Some assignments have “Hints” to help probe the problem. Some of the longer assignments have preliminary assignments analyzing the audience or developing reader benefits or subject lines. Use these to practice portions of longer documents. • If you’re writing a letter or memo, read the sample problems in Modules 10, 11, and 12 with a detailed analysis, strong and weak solutions, and a discussion of the solutions to see how to apply the principles in this book to your own writing.

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viii About the Authors

• Use the Polishing Your Prose exercises to make your writing its best.

• Remember that most problems are open-ended, requiring original, critical thinking. Many of the problems are deliberately written in negative, ineffective language. You’ll need to reword sentences, reorganize information, and think through the situation to produce the best possible solution to the business problem.

• Learn as much as you can about what‘s happening in business. The knowledge will not only help you develop reader benefits and provide examples but also make you an even more impressive candidate in job interviews.

• Visit the Online Learning Center (http://www.mhhe.com/bcs6e) to see how the resources presented there can help you. You will find updated articles, resume and letter templates, links to job hunting websites, and much more.

Communication skills are critical to success in both the new economy and the old. Business Communication: Building Critical Skills can help you identify and practice the skills you need. Have a good term—and a good career!

Cordially,

Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek [email protected]

August 20, 2012 Page 2

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About the Authors ix

August 20, 2012

Dear Professor:

Business Communication: Building Critical Skills (BCS) is here to help make your job teaching business communication a little bit easier.

Its modular design makes adapting BCS to 5–, 8–, 10–, or 15–week courses simpler. And, with videos, new media tools, and supplements, it is easy to adapt to Internet courses. The features teachers and students find so useful are also here: anecdotes and examples, easy-to-follow lists, integrated coverage of international business communication, analyses of sample problems, and a wealth of in-class exercises and out-of-class assignments.

But BCS takes these features a step further. In each module you’ll also find

• Polishing Your Prose boxes, featuring straightforward instructions to help students correct common writing errors, as well as exercises to test what they know. • Building a Critical Skill boxes, showing students how to apply what they know in the business world. • Site to See boxes that invite students to use the Internet to get timely information available in cyberspace. • Instant Replays to reinforce concepts students are reading. • Fast Forward/Rewind indicators to help students make connections between concepts in different modules. • FYI boxes that provide some lighthearted information about business communication.

This sixth edition is thoroughly updated based on the latest research in business communication. You’ll find many new problems and examples, new Polishing Your Prose exercises, and new Sites to See. Your students will benefit from timelines that identify the steps in planning, writing, and revising everything from seven-minute e-mail messages to memos taking six hours to reports taking 30 business days. Cases for Communicators at the end of each unit provide individual and group activities.

BCS also includes a comprehensive package of supplements to help you and your students.

• An Instructor’s Resource Manual with sample syllabi, an overview of each module, suggested lecture topics, in-class exercises, examples, discussion and quiz questions, and solutions to problems. • A Test Bank featuring hundreds of questions for use in quizzes, midterms, and final examinations—with answers. The Test Bank is in a computerized format (Mac or Windows) that allows you to create and edit your own tests.

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• Videos showing real managers reacting to situations dealing with cultural differences, active listening, working in teams, and the virtual workplace. • An Online Learning Center (http://www.mhhe.com/bcs6e) with self-quizzes for students, a bulletin board to communicate with other professors, current articles and research in business communication, downloadable supplements, links to professional resources, and more.

You can get more information about teaching business communication from the meetings and publications of The Association for Business Communication (ABC). Contact Dr. Betty S. Johnson Executive Director Association for Business Communication PO Box 6143 Nacogdoches, Texas 75962-6143 Telephone: 936-468-6280 Fax: 936-468-6281 E-mail: [email protected] Web: www.businesscommunication.org

We’ve done our best to provide you with the most comprehensive but easy-to-use teaching tools we can. Tell us about your own success stories using BCS. We look forward to hearing from you!

Cordially,

Stephen Kyo Kaczmarek [email protected]

August 20, 2012 Page 2

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About the Authors xi

We’ve listened to your feedback on what you like and what you want improved in BCS, keeping as much of the text intact as possible while also making sure BCS6e accurately reflects changes in the workplace and in the field of business communication. In particu- lar, Module 13 has been renamed “E-Mail Messages, Web Writing, and Technology” and updated to include more discussion on using social networking tools, and Modules 27 and 28 integrate social media into job application documents. Throughout the book, you’ll find hundreds of elements revised or all new, including FYIs, Sites to See, BCS boxes, Prob- lems and Exercises, Polishing Your Prose exercises, and Cases for Communicators.

Module 1: This critical foundation module underscores the importance of excellent com- munication skills in the workplace. For this edition, it includes a new opener reflecting on the tough economic realities of today’s workplace and how the ability to read and write well gives professionals an edge on the competition. There are also new FYIs on Carnegie Speech’s language training for a global market; vital 21st-century job skills that include oral and written communication; the slow gains in reading skills among elementary and middle school students (the next wave of college students and young professionals); degrees of study and workplace success that correlate in surprising ways; a typo that may have caused stock market chaos; and the most literate cities in the United States. A new Site to See invites students to test their interpersonal skills, and the BCS box has been updated to include information on start-up companies and a new Apple photo. A new end- of-module problem and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 2: Revisions to the module opener reinforce the importance of audience analysis, and some elements have been moved to improve the flow of the module. New FYIs include discussions on an offensive ad by Nivea that failed to properly analyze its audience; errors by FEMA and subsequent messages that made problems worse for disaster victims; the travails of test takers and a talking pineapple; a politician’s lack of awareness of how audi- ences might view his multimillion-dollar income; public criticism by P. J. Crowley that cost him his job; and the value of role-playing to achieve buy-in from audiences. The BCS box has been updated to note that Zappos was named by CNN/Money as one of the 100 Best Companies to Work For. A new end-of-module problem and all new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 3: In an ever-shrinking world, this module’s overview of the elements of diversity and culture that help shape the workplace becomes even more critical for 21st-century professionals. New FYIs in Module 3 focus on the rise of interracial marriages in the United States; the value of touch to staying healthy; self-definition by Millennials in the workplace; Nike’s sexist Olympic T-shirt design; women now scoring higher than men on IQ tests; ads that present women and minorities offensively; Baby Boomers being targeted by con artists; and the lack of diversity in U.S. television and what is being done about it. A new Site to See offers reviews and links to apps that can make travel easier. New end-of- module problems and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 4: This module’s revised opener notes that while the increased pace of the work- place has brought increased pressure to compose faster and faster, writers must still take care to compose effectively. New FYIs discuss how what constitutes revisions changes according to audience; Mortgage Resolution Partners’ plan to keep more people in their homes; errant e-mails that terrified hundreds of employees into thinking they were fired; and tips from experts on overcoming procrastination. Site to See addresses have been updated, and a new Site to See invites visitors to take beginning and advanced Microsoft Word tutorials. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

New and Improved Coverage in BCS6e!

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Module 5: The module opener has been revised to emphasize that the principles of good design still apply to ever-changing social media, and the BCS box has been updated to ref- erence Google Docs. Two new FYIs discuss the importance of document design—the first being a Pew Charitable Trust study on how checking account documents are too confusing to follow, and the second on how large, multi-touch screens are part of the next wave of technological changes in how we use and format documents. Site to See addresses have been updated, and a new Site to See offers tips on using PowerPoint slides in presenta- tions. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates to the module, and the new Case for Communicators for Unit 1 examines how poor proofreading caused financial headaches for Old Navy.

Module 6: Modules 6, 7, and 8 detail the cornerstones of good business communication: you-attitude, positive emphasis, and reader benefits. They are briefer than some of the ear- lier modules but are meant to be read as a collective. For Module 6, examples throughout have been updated to reflect more current dates. One new FYI features a study that found a link among prejudices, low intelligence, and social conservatism, while another notes the lack of you-attitude among employees at Goldman Sachs, who, among other things, referred to clients as “muppets.” A new Site to See invites students to test their Emotional Intelligence. New end-of-module problems and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 7: Understanding the role of positive emphasis in business communication—and contrasting it with negative points of view—is vital to composing effective messages. Revisions to this module include FYIs on the disturbing findings that for the first time, most Americans do not believe today’s young people will have better lives than their par- ents; the effect of optimism on both physical and financial health; the news that happier people make better workers; the role of resilience in helping people cope with stress and life’s challenges; tips on making video apologies; and updates on failed apologies and on the happiest states in the United States. New end-of-module problems and new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 8: Developing good reader benefits can challenge students, so new FYIs focus on creative and interesting ways that benefits affect people. These FYIs discuss how the intrinsic value of self-image may be more important to people than even money; how bou- tique grocery stores provide online shopping and home delivery benefits to customers; the correlation between more education and longer life expectancy; and the counterintuitive patterns of liars and cheaters being unfazed by potential consequences. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates to the module, and the new Case for Com- municators for Unit 2 examines how poor proofreading resulted in embarrassment for The New York Times.

Module 9: While the formats for memos and letters remain unchanged, technology is influencing how such documents are created and sent. Thus, new FYIs reflect on cloud technology making it easier to store documents but with the added challenge of making sure formats remain intact; indecipherable handwriting on letters and packages thwarted by Post Office scanning equipment; and CEOs Mike Duke and Tom Barrack being embar- rassed by the memos they sent to employees that went viral. Examples throughout this module have been updated to reflect current dates. New Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 10: This module has been renamed “Informative and Positive Messages” and all examples have been updated to reflect more current dates. In addition, FYIs now include the best out-of-office e-mail reply of all time; a movie trailer that uses a customer’s rant to remind others of its no-talking/no-texting policy; chocolate, indeed, being able to change a person’s mood for the better; customers tweeting complaints and how companies can

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better manage their image; the earliest appearance of the now-popular word “information”; and the effect of nearly 25% of the world workers’ depression on productivity. A new end- of-module problem and all new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 11: New FYIs include how what most people would consider bad news actu- ally helped shooting victim Petra Anderson; the surprising answer to who was behind a campaign to spread negative information about Google; the potential negative effect on reputation from working at home; types of “toxic” bosses in the workplace; workers want- ing honesty from managers and supervisors; a gay instructor fired by Facebook for daring to give a chatty employee a look; Lego’s attempts to cater to girls; and the most educated employees also facing the most stress on the job. Sites to See addresses have been updated, and examples throughout this module reflect more current dates. A new end-of-module problem and all new Polishing Your Prose exercises round out the updates.

Module 12: Though we’re surrounded by persuasive messages every day, understanding them and then creating our own effective ones require careful effort. For better flow in the discussion, some elements of this module have been moved, and new FYIs discuss online bullying persuading people to help the victims; former Xerox CEO Anne Mulcahy almost being persuaded by sexist salespeople to go somewhere else; “birthers” refusing to be per- suaded by President Obama’s birth certificate; branding’s effect on persuading consumers; the “like me bias” in performance appraisals; and tips for writing …