Inform consent


Topic: Inform consent on Adult/ Children/Religion

Introduction Paper on Informed Consent: Adult terminally ill patients suffering from, for example leukemia believers of the religion Christianity, belonging to Jehovah's Witness. 

 Paper on Informed Consent: Adult terminally ill patients suffering from for example leukemia believers of the religion Christianity, belonging to Jehovah's Witness. 

Ethical principles involved: the medical ethical principle of autonomy. This principle involves ensuring that the process of decision-making is free of coercion or coaxing by the providers.  The patient has complete autonomy of thought, intention, and action while making any decisions pertaining to health care interventions. The other medical ethical principles, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence are dependent upon the practice of this principle of autonomy because only when a patient is having autonomy, the other medical ethical principles can be upheld. Comment by Rose Loiacono: Indent The instructions were to write an introduction using APA format—this is not what you’ve done—you’ve given me a rough draft of an outline

Case Study: A patient Chris, 79 years of age) who is terminally ill and suffering from leukemia needs a blood transfusion, but the patient is refusing to have a blood transfusion due to religious reasons. The patient belongs to Jehovah's Witness and according to the religious beliefs of the people of Jehovah's Witness; blood transfusion is against the teachings of the Bible, Leviticus 17:14.  'You must not eat the blood of any creature, because the life of every creature is its blood; anyone who eats it must be cut-off'. This creates an ethical dilemma between the establishment of the patient's autonomy to accept or to reject a medical treatment even unto death and the physician's duty to deliver the optimal treatment. Comment by Rose Loiacono: You must cite your source Is this a quote or paraphrase?

This can be addressed in healthcare institutions by ensuring that the providers educate the patient about the risks and benefits of the medical interventions that should be delivered in the clinical context i.e. in this scenario, the risk, and benefits of administration of blood transfusion. The patients should then be asked to give informed consent by the nurse providers. Thus patient-centered care should be delivered by the providers, after educating them about the medical interventions. Comment by Rose Loiacono: No abbreviations in APA

Nursing care strategies that should be adopted in this scenario include; patiently actively listening to the patient, to generate a bond of trust between the patient and the provider.  Discussing the prognosis of the diseases without the administration of blood transfusion: with the patient, along with a discussion of the risks and benefits of blood transfusion with the patient. Finally taking informed consent from the patient, regarding blood transfusion.

Plans for implementing strategies to address the ethical dilemma: making efforts to gain knowledge about the cultural and religious inclinations of people. Developing a bond of trust between the patient and the provider by actively listening to the patients and their concerns. Educating the patients regarding the risks and benefits of medical interventions such as in this case administration of blood transfusion, to practice evidence-based practice in a patient-centered way.



Melton JG. Jehovah's Witness. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. [Last accessed on 2014 Sep 30]. Available from: 

Painted into a corner: unexpected complications in treating a Jehovah's Witness.

Jones JW, McCullough LB, Richman BW, J Vasc Surg. 2006 Aug; 44(2):425-8.

Chand, N. K., Subramanya, H. B., & Rao, G. V. (2014). Management of patients who refuse blood transfusion. Indian journal of anesthesia, 58(5), 658-664. Comment by Rose Loiacono: This page is not in APA format and none have been cited in the body of your paper.