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#776564 Topic: Response to teacher pahophysiology Number of Pages: 1 (Double Spaced) Number of sources: 3 Writing Style: APA Type of document: Essay Academic Level:Master Category: Nursing VIP Support: N/A Language Style: English (U.S.) Order Instructions: Thanks for your detailed post on the different types of pain. One factor to take into consideration with pain is age. With older adults, the most common causes of pain are musculoskeletal disorders. Pain may be chronic and is often multifactorial. The cause of pain may not always be clear. Treatment of pain in the elderly can be complicated. NSAIDs pose a risk for ulcers & GI bleed. The risk depends on drug dose and duration of therapy. When elderly patients are treated with NSAIDs the concomitant use of cytoprotective drugs, such as a proton pump inhibitor, may help reduce risk of ulcer or GI bleed. Indomethacin should be avoided in elderly since it may cause confusion in the elderly patient. Opioids have a longer half-life and may have a greater analgesic effect on older adults. Other problems with opioids includes constipation and urinary retention. What are some safe treatment options for pain in older adults?