Leadership Book Presentation


Citation and Reference Guidelines for PowerPoint Presentations

Created by Jeannie Short, MSN, RN


Indiana Wesleyan University

Post-licensure Program

© 2019


To guide students in the post-licensure nursing program in using a consistent format for professional slide presentations.

To provide a consistent approach for citing and referencing slide information and images that are aligned with APA guidelines as much as possible.

This presentation is created with the following goals in mind:


It is important to remember….

The American Psychological Association (APA)

manual (7th ed.) does not give specific

guidelines for citing and referencing content

on presentation slides.

However, professional writers agree that just as

it is important to give credit to original sources

in a paper, it is also important to do so in a

professional presentation.


We will begin by reviewing some existing guidelines that we currently use in our program.


The first slide should contain the same information that is included on a title page of a paper submitted in our program.

It should include the title of the presentation, author(s), faculty name, course name/number, and date.

The title slide should have all major words capitalized. It is suggested that title lines be larger font than other lines on the title slide.

The Title Slide


The following slide

shows an example

of a title slide that could

be used for a student

presentation in this program.


David: Courageous Biblical Leader

Nancy Nurse

Faculty: Carol Bence

NUR 415: Leadership and Management in Nursing

Indiana Wesleyan University

August 1, 2019

APA citations and references on slides should be done just like an APA paper.

Quotes should include quotation marks, author surname(s), date of publication, and location of quoted content (page or page number) within the parenthetical or in-text citation.

Paraphrased content should include author surname(s) and publication date.

Title words are used in place of author surnames for non-authored sources.

Giving Credit to Authors


If a single source is used for a slide, the citation information can be included at the bottom of the slide. This is usually centered in smaller font size and placed in parentheses.

If more than one source is cited on a slide, include in-text citations for the slide information.

Giving Credit to Authors


Let’s look at

examples of slide citations

that follow these guidelines…...


Dr. Neuman developed, taught, and refined a community mental health program for postmaster’s level nurses at UCLA. She designed a conceptual model for nursing in 1970 as a response to a request from UCLA graduate students. Her nursing model was published in 1972.

(Tomey & Alligood, 2006)

Slide Citation Example

This slide shows paraphrased information from one source.


Slide Citation Example

“System wellness is a condition where all subsystems are in balance and harmony with the whole of the client” (Reed, 1993, p. 7).

The total system needs are being met. The client is in a dynamic state of either wellness or illness, in varying degrees, at any given point in time (Tomey & Alligood, 2006).

This slide shows information cited from two different sources.


What should be considered when using pictures, images, and clipart in PowerPoint presentations?


Copyright is the exclusive right to……



reproduce, or

sell intellectual property.

Ideas cannot be copyrighted, but the means of expressing them, can. Copyright gives the

copyright holder credit for the work, and the opportunity to profit from it. (American Psychological Association, 2017)

Creative Commons

Copyright laws state that “once any document, writing, image, or drawing, or sound recording or software is put into tangible form, it has an automatic copyright protection to the person who created it.” (U.S. Copyright Office, 2011)

Items may also be registered with the copyright office or patent office for additional protection.

Copyrighted Images


This simply means that images, photographs,

soundtracks, or graphics may be part of the public domain OR may not be used without permission from the creator or the people who have been sold the rights.

With this in mind, we must become aware of user license agreements, terms for use statements, copyright symbols and permission rights before copying material into slide presentations.

Copyrighted Images


When giving credit to a source, follow the specific wording the publisher requires for the copyright statement. If no wording is specified, follow APA’s standard formatting for citing intellectual property.

Copyright © 2010 Apple Inc. All rights reserved. Terms of Use. Privacy Policy.

These statements may be found at the bottom of the web page

This image is available for editorial and educational use only. Contact Customer Service to inquire about additional uses. This image is available for free use, "as is", with no warranty. This public domain photograph may not be used in materials, advertisements, products, or promotions that in any way suggest approval or endorsement of any people appearing in the photos.

Department of Defense guidelines for use

American Soldier Holds the Flag on Top of a Retiring Helicopter.

Click on image

(external hyperlink)

For terms of use details.

…or linked from the image.

Stock Photograph by Department of Defense Public Domain  

Image Number: 0420-0906-2918-5452

The doctrine of "fair use" permits limited use of copyrighted material without acquiring permission from the copyright holder. This doctrine is deliberately vague to better accommodate many kinds of intellectual property and many circumstances of use.

(American Psychological Association, 2017)

Fair Use

Fair use under U.S. law takes four things into consideration:

The purpose and character of the use of the copyrighted work, including whether such work is commercial or for nonprofit or educational purposes.

The nature of the copyrighted work.

The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the work as a whole (for example, a 10-word quotation from a song lyric will be handled differently than the same number of words quoted from a journal article).

And finally, the effect of the use on the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work.

(American Psychological Association, 2017)

Under Fair Use law, faculty and students are allowed to use copyrighted material (photos, images, figures, graphs, etc…) in a slide presentation for educational purposes. For-profit or commercial purposes are not considered fair use. A citation must be provided that adheres to the credit guidelines or permission notice found with the cited material.

Fair Use

When looking for images or photographs for a presentation, it is best to consider sources that are not protected by copyright ( i.e. Creative Commons).

Government photographs, images, and other creations can not be copyrighted, and can be considered for fair use.

Material that is considered to be part of the public domain is either unable to be copyrighted, the copyright has expired, or it is impossible to know who the creator is.

Non-Copyright Protected Images


Inserting Images in PowerPoint Slides

It is always best practice to include a citation under all images, pictures, and charts that are used in a presentation.

This provides retrieval information for the image and allows you to credit the source.

References for cited images are only required when copyright status is not clear or permission-for-use clause indicates the need for a required citation for use.

Checking the image properties and Terms of Use is best academic practice.


Inserting Images in PowerPoint Slides

Clipart is no longer a part of the Microsoft Suite. When you want to insert an image, a Bing search engine takes you outside your software program to search on the Internet for an image. This external site, created by someone, may fall outside of the public domain and need both a citation and a reference entry.

Remember, even if the website is described as a “free clip art” site, you still need to provide an in-text citation and references for the image. See example on next slide. 


Inserting Images in PowerPoint Slides


Sleeping crooked [Graphic]. (2011). Retrieved October 2, 2019, from


(“Sleeping Crooked,” 2011)


It is not unusual for a graphic to be untitled.

You might do an image search for a person sitting at a computer. A group of images display and one is selected to use in your slide presentation. There is no title or date; only the URL is given where the image originally is stored. This would be an appropriate way to reference it on the reference slide. An example is shown on the next slide.

Inserting Images in PowerPoint Slides



Untitled image of a man at a computer [Graphic]. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2019, from


Inserting Images in PowerPoint Slides


Use of Google Images

Google Images is a search for images. The search does not own images. Care must be taken to find the original owner of the image. In Google Images, there is a link to the right of the image that says "Visit Page." Sometimes this link goes to a page that does not identify origination, creator, name or owner of image. If there isn't enough information to cite an image, locate a more credible image.

More simply, trying to cite an image found on Google Images is the same as citing a Google for a website located using the Google search. Google finds items but does not own, have authority, create or hold the resource. It simply finds them unless the URL contains Google.com or the copyright is affiliated clearly with Google.


1- Search FLICKR using Creative Commons license to suit your project.

2- Search BING. They have a search that filters by license.

3- Search Creative Commons. Select "modify, adapt, or build upon.”

4- Search Wikimedia Commons.

5- Search United States Government websites. Many items are public domain and free to use.

The best strategy is to find and use credible images with licenses that allow for their use. Image sites to use instead of Google Images:



It is still important to give credit to the creator of any image, whether copyrighted or not copyrighted.

Let’s consider what may be the best practice for citing various types of images in slide presentations…..


ClipArt from Creative Commons

Creative Commons

No reference entry on the reference slide is needed for non-copyrighted images

that are licensed under Creative Commons Inc.

Photograph from Internet Site

The above cited photograph would appear on the reference page as:


Sidewalk chalk sailboat [photo]. (n.d.). Retrieved October 29, 2010, from

http://www.myspaceantics.com/image-sidewalk-chalk-sailboat .jpg.html  

(“Sidewalk Chalk Sailboat,” n.d.)


Image from Public Domain

Lincoln Visual by www.PDImages.com

These images should be cited with the

recommended citation

or credit line. No entry on the reference page is necessary for material offered at public domain

or government websites.


Copyrighted Image from Internet

Used with permission from Curtis Newbold


Reference page listing:

Newbold, C. (2014, July 14). Can I use that picture? [Graphic Art]. Retrieved

January 5, 2017, from http://thevisualcommunicationguy.com/2014/07/14/



Internet Image with External Hyperlink

Image courtesy of National Institutes of Health

This image is taken

from the NIH Image Bank.

The user policy at this

site appreciates credit

but requires no particular

credit line. This image

contains an external

hyperlink that allows the

viewer to be taken directly

to the website by simply clicking on the image in slideshow mode. This image would require a reference.

Personal Photographs

Image courtesy of Kelly E. Short. Used with permission.

This image would not require a reference, since it is a personal photo and

considered non-retrievable.

Use the title “References” on the reference slide(s).

Model the APA reference page with sources listed in alphabetical order.

Verify that all sources on the reference slide are associated with a slide citation.

All photographs and images that are copyrighted must be cited and listed on the reference slide.

Use the same left margin and hanging indentation rules for all reference entries.

Single spacing is permitted on reference slides.

Creating a Reference Slide for Your Presentation


Reed, K. S. (1993). Betty Neuman: The Neuman Systems Model. Newbury Park, CA:

Sage Publications.

Tomey, A. M., & Alligood, M. R. (2006). Nursing theorists and their work (6th ed.).

St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

American Psychological Association. (2017). The basics of copyright and permission

[Presentation]. Retrieved from APA Style Central website: http://www.apastyle.org/asc/

United States Copyright Office. (2011, December). Copyright law of the United States.

Retrieved January 5, 2017, from https://www.copyright.gov/title17/