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Here are the Chapter 7 food for thought questions:


  • What is a hypothesis?  What is the distinction between a hypothesis and a prediction?
  • What information does the researcher communicate in each of the sections of a research article?
  • What are the two functions of a theory?
  • Think of at least one "commonsense" saying about behavior (e.g., "Spare the rod, spoil the child"; "Like father, like son"'; "Absence makes the heart grow fonder"). For each, develop a hypothesis that is suggested by the saying and a prediction that follows from the hypothesis. (Based on Gardner, 1988.)
  • Identify the four steps in hypothesis testing.
  • Define null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, level of significance, test statistic, p value, and statistical significance.
  • Define Type I error and Type II error, and identify the type of error that researchers control.
  • What strategies can researchers use to control Type I and Type II error? Give specific examples.
  • Explain the concept of significance and why it is important.
  • What is a confidence interval?
  • Distinguish between a one-tailed test and a two-tailed test, and explain why a Type III error is possible only with one-tailed tests.
  • Define power and identify six factors that influence power.
  • If the null hypothesis is rejected, did we reach significance? Explain. 
  • A researcher conducts a one-sample z test. The z statistic for the upper-tail critical test at a .05 level of significance is zobt = 1.84. What is the decision for this test?
  • As effect size increases, what happens to the power?  
  • As effect size decreases, what happens to the power?  
  • When a population is associated with a small effect size, what can a researcher do to increase the power of the study?
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