ENG RESEARCH PAPERS

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  • Module 1: What Is a Research paper?

    MODULE 1

    Overview

    At first glance, the answer to the question, ‘What is a research paper?’ may seem obvious: a research paper is simply an essay that includes a few references and a works cited section. However, a research paper – a good research paper – involves so much more than Googling a topic and copying and pasting the first three hits into an essay.

    A research paper is a complex document that combines the tools of a standard essay, such as a thesis statement and rhetorical modes, with careful research practices such as identifying valid sources, summarizing and paraphrasing, and proper citation of materials.

    A research paper, unlike a report (which is data driven and does not include a thesis statement), collects information from a variety of sources and then uses that information to construct a well-argued, logically sound document.

    This module will examine the differences between a research paper and a report. It will also help you identify your own personal interests and consider how those interests might be turned into a suitable topic for a research paper.

    Objectives

    After completing this module, you should be able to:

    1.Assess your research interests

    2.Formulate an appropriate research topic from your interests. .

     Learning Activities Learning Activities item options Hide Details .The first group of essays is from a series entitled ‘Self-Perception’ in Ackley’s Essays from Contemporary Culture 5th Ed.

    Readings:

    Since this module links your interests and experiences to possible research topics, this series is especially relevant. As you read the essays, ask yourself what experiences you’ve had in your life and how those experiences have shaped you as an individual.

    "On Being a Cripple” – Nancy Mairs p. 161

    “What’s in a Name?” – Lini S. Kadaba p. 174

    “Just Walk on By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space” – Brent Staples p. 184

     

    The second group of readings for this module is from: Lester & Lester's Writing Research Papers 14th Ed.

    Chapter 1: Writing from Research, pp. 1-9. Pay close attention to section 1d on page 5. Understanding a research assignment is the first step to writing a solid paper.

    Chapter 2: Finding a Topic, pp. 10-30. Section 2a (page 11-13) contains information on how to use your personal ideas and interests as a basis for a research paper. The list on page 12 may be especially useful for those of you who are unsure where to begin looking for a research topic..

     

    Reading Assignment:

    “Just Walk on By” After reading the essay, “Just Walk on By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space” by Brent Staples (p. 184), answer the following questions, devoting at least five sentences to your answer.

    •How does Staples view himself?

    •How is this different from the image that others have of him?

    •Does this image that other people have affect Staples’ own sense of self? If so, how?

     

    .

    Thought Assignment:

    Analyzing My Interests: Analyzing For each of the questions below, jot down some responses. These questions are to help you explore possible topics for a research paper.

    1.Hobbies: What are your current hobbies and extra-curricular activities? What hobbies/activities would you become involved in if time and money were not factors?

    2.Family: What holidays do you celebrate with your family? Who is your oldest living relative? What historical events has he/she lived through? Are you named for any of your relatives? If so, who? Who are the members of your family? Is it a traditional, nuclear family, or does it reflect the more modern, diverse notion of what a family is?

    3.Career: What would be your ideal career? What career course are you presently pursuing? What background information would help you to perform better in your career? How do you think your professional field will change in ten years? In twenty?

    After completing the self-assessment exercise, choose one of the topics (hobbies, family, or careers) and write a paragraph that summarizes your findings. Then link your findings to possible topics for a research paper.

     

    Remember, well-written paragraphs include topic sentences, five to seven supporting sentences, and a conclusion. Proper grammar, spelling and punctuation are required.

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    Reading Assignment:

    “Just Walk on By” After reading the essay, “Just Walk on By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space” by Brent Staples (p. 184), answer the following questions, devoting at least five sentences to your answer.

    •How does Staples view himself?

    •How is this different from the image that others have of him?

    •Does this image that other people have affect Staples’ own sense of self? If so, how?

     

    .

     

  • Thought Assignment:

    Analyzing My Interests: Analyzing For each of the questions below, jot down some responses. These questions are to help you explore possible topics for a research paper.

    1.Hobbies: What are your current hobbies and extra-curricular activities? What hobbies/activities would you become involved in if time and money were not factors?

    2.Family: What holidays do you celebrate with your family? Who is your oldest living relative? What historical events has he/she lived through? Are you named for any of your relatives? If so, who? Who are the members of your family? Is it a traditional, nuclear family, or does it reflect the more modern, diverse notion of what a family is?

    3.Career: What would be your ideal career? What career course are you presently pursuing? What background information would help you to perform better in your career? How do you think your professional field will change in ten years? In twenty?

    After completing the self-assessment exercise, choose one of the topics (hobbies, family, or careers) and write a paragraph that summarizes your findings. Then link your findings to possible topics for a research paper.

     

    Remember, well-written paragraphs include topic sentences, five to seven supporting sentences, and a conclusion. Proper grammar, spelling and punctuation are required.

  • Module 2 The Research Process

    Module 2:  The Research Writing Process

    Overview

    All papers begin with good planning. Having a general topic for a research paper is important, but understanding how to narrow that topic and turn it into a workable thesis statement suitable for a research paper is vital.

     

    The thesis statement may be the single most important sentence in a research paper. A thesis statement combines the topic and the controlling idea – the thought that directs the course of the essay. Without a thesis statement, a research paper would simply be a collection of facts.

     

    This module will review the basics of using brainstorming techniques to narrow a broad topic into a topic that can work for a research paper. The module will also instruct you on how to write a solid thesis statement.

    Objectives

    After completing this module, you should be able to:

    1. Develop a focused topic for a research paper.

    2. Identify a good thesis statement.

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    Reading Assignment Submission

    Re-read chapter two in Writing Research Papers

    Review the various brainstorming techniques on pages 13–17. Asking questions about a topic is an especially good tool because it not only helps to narrow the scope of a paper, but it can also help give you a better understanding of the topic and, in turn, a more solid thesis statement.

     

    Section 2f (pages 22–25) highlights the thesis statement and gives several examples of good thesis statements

    Write approximately a 300 word summary of chapter 2 in at least three well developed paragraphs. Focus especially on identifying a well-developed thesis statement.   Submit assignment below.

    Thought Assignment Submission

    On the basis of your “Thought Assignment Submission” in Module 1, brainstorm in 75-100 words some ideas for a research topic. Then, write down the name of one topic that excites you or at least sounds slightly interesting.  Finally, write a  one sentence thesis statement on that  topic. This thesis statement is not necessarily permanent. It can and probably will be modified or completely changed. Submit below.

  • Reading Assignment Submission

    Re-read chapter two in Writing Research Papers

    Review the various brainstorming techniques on pages 13–17. Asking questions about a topic is an especially good tool because it not only helps to narrow the scope of a paper, but it can also help give you a better understanding of the topic and, in turn, a more solid thesis statement.

     

    Section 2f (pages 22–25) highlights the thesis statement and gives several examples of good thesis statements

    Write approximately a 300 word summary of chapter 2 in at least three well developed paragraphs. Focus especially on identifying a well-developed thesis statement.   Submit assignment below.

     

  • Thought Assignment Submission

    On the basis of your “Thought Assignment Submission” in Module 1, brainstorm in 75-100 words some ideas for a research topic. Then, write down the name of one topic that excites you or at least sounds slightly interesting.  Finally, write a  one sentence thesis statement on that  topic. This thesis statement is not necessarily permanent. It can and probably will be modified or completely changed. Submit below.

  • Submit here your final research project topic. This topic will be the basis of your final research essay.

  • Module 3 MLA Style Citations and Works Cited Page

    Module 3: MLA STYLE Citations and Works Cited Page

    Overview

    This module is designed to teach you the proper way to cite outside sources in a research paper. It will also explain when it is not necessary to cite a source.

    In this module, you will learn the proper way to cite your sources. Finally, you will explain how to create a works cited page that lists all of the sources for a research paper.

     

    Objectives

    After completing this module, you should be able to:

    1.Cite sources correctly

    2.Format citations correctly in MLA form

    Readings

    Writing Research Papers Chapter 11, pages 183-188  identify the appropriate way to write MLA standard, in-text citations (parenthetical citations that appear within the research paper itself).

    Chapter 14: Works Cited: MLA Style on pages 254-294  outlines, in detail, the way in which sources must be listed in an MLA works cited page. An example of an MLA works cited page is found on pages 255-256.

    Calvin College has created the KnightCite Citation Service to help take the stress out of citing sources for Web pages. Follow the instructions, first making sure to carefully select the appropriate citation style and resource type on the left side of the screen (be sure to spell everything correctly since the site does not have a spell checker available yet). After you’ve entered all of the necessary information, click the ‘submit’ button and you will be presented with a proper citation that can be copied and pasted into a works cited page. Just remember that when creating a works cited page, all entries must be in alphabetical order!

    Module 3 Reading Assignment

    1. Explain in 75-150  words various ways to cite your sources within the essay on the basis of your readings in Writing Research Papers on pages 183-188.

    2. In 100-200 words explain how to format a works cited page on the basis of your readings on pages 254-256.

    3. In 50-100 words, explain how pages 260-294 can help you format your MLA works cited page.

    Submit this assignment below.

     

     

     

  • Module 3 Reading Assignment

    1. Explain in 75-150  words various ways to cite your sources within the essay on the basis of your readings in Writing Research Papers on pages 183-188.

    2. In 100-200 words explain how to format a works cited page on the basis of your readings on pages 254-256.

    3. In 50-100 words, explain how pages 260-294 can help you format your MLA works cited page.

    Submit this assignment below.

     

     

     

  • General Guidelines
    1. Your first paper must be 750-800 words in length (including the works cited page). The paper should be double-spaced.
    2. You must use at least two sources for this paper.
    3. Any resources you use (including your text book) must be cited within your essay and at the end of the paper according to MLA standards.
    4. Because the English Department does not recognize Wikipedia as a valid source, do not use it for this assignment.
    Topics (choose one)
    1. Using the essay “On Being a Cripple” (p. 161) as a basis, write a definition essay explaining the term ‘cripple’. Do not use the Webster’s dictionary definition for this assignment. Remember: a definition essay moves beyond a strict, dictionary definition and uses other methods such as examples, personal narrative, and comparisons. For more information on writing a definition essay, visit Developing a Definition, part of the Guide to Grammar & Writing Web site at Capital Community College.
    2. In her essay, “What’s in a Name?” Lini Kadaba says, “The melting pot…has become more of a stew or goulash or curry as ethnic pride moves to the front burner and we discover our deep ethnic roots…” (Kabada 175). Write an example essay that illustrates this idea.
    3. After reading the essay “On Being a Cripple” (p. 161), write a comparison or contrast essay that explores the differences in how ‘cripples’ are viewed. You could, for example, choose to compare these differences in light of culture (Eastern culture versus Western culture) or generations (people who were born in the early 1900’s versus those born later in the century).
    4. Using the essay, “Just Walk on By” (p. 184) as a basis, write an argumentative essay debating the idea that the views of the people around us determines our personal identity. You must have a clear thesis statement that takes a stand and then use sources to back up your thesis.
    5. Write a descriptive essay in which you examine your own self-perception. You might answer questions such as, is your self-perception based on reality? Are you a typical representation of your generation, or not? Remember, this essay must still include two outside sources.
    6. When you have finished the essay, submit it here.
  • Module 4 Primary and Secondary Sources

    MODULE 4

     

    Overview

    Consider the following scenarios: (1) Your friend calls you on the phone and tells you that she’s just had an accident. She was driving through a parking lot when a large SUV backed out of a space and right into the side of her car. (2) You read a newspaper account of the same accident.

     

    In the first case, you are talking directly to the person who was involved in the events of the accident. In the second, you are reading information that was written by a third party not involved in the accident.

     

    The first type of information represented is referred to as a primary source. The second is known as a secondary source. Secondary sources are generally sources that comment upon primary sources.

     

    Primary sources include such things as: diary entries, interviews, statistics, pictures, graphs, charts, poems, novels and speeches. Secondary sources would include newspaper articles, research papers, journal articles and most web pages.

     

    In writing research papers, both primary and secondary sources are legitimate supplies of information, but a good research paper will include both types of information.

     

    Objective

    After completing this module, you should be able to recognize the difference between a primary and secondary source.

    Learning Activity

    Read  “Reading and Evaluating Sources” in chapter 8 pages 127–129 in Writing Research Papers.

    When reading, pay close attention to the chart on page 128. The chart does an excellent job of identifying both primary and secondary sources of information for a diverse collection of topics.

     

    Read  “Writing Effective Notes and Creating Outlines “ on pages 149–151 in, Writing Research Papers.

    These pages in chapter nine identify when to use either primary or secondary material from a source within a research paper.

     

     Module 4 Assignment: Use the Internet to find two sources on the topic “health care”. One of these sources must be a primary source and the other should be a secondary source. After carefully reading and reviewing the material, write a paragraph describing the type of information presented by each source and discuss the differences between the sources.

    Your paragraph should be at least seven to nine sentences long and answer the following questions:

    •What sources did you discover?

    •How are they different?

    •How are they similar?

    •Do you think one of the sources offers better information for a research paper? Why

    Include an MLA works cited page listing your sources.

     

  • Module 4 Assignment: Use the Internet to find two sources on the topic “health care”. One of these sources must be a primary source and the other should be a secondary source. After carefully reading and reviewing the material, write a paragraph describing the type of information presented by each source and discuss the differences between the sources.

    Your paragraph should be at least seven to nine sentences long and answer the following questions:

    •What sources did you discover?

    •How are they different?

    •How are they similar?

    •Do you think one of the sources offers better information for a research paper? Why

    Include an MLA works cited page listing your sources.

     

  • Submit here your one sentence thesis statement along with four or five sentence description of your evidence of  support.

  • Module 5

    MODULE  5   Conducting Personal Interviews for Small Essay 2

     

    Overview

    One of the best ways to gain primary information for a research paper is to conduct an interview. Not only will interviews give you firsthand information about a certain topic, they can also give a research paper a unique perspective that other sources, such as books and Web sites, cannot.

     

    Conducting interviews appropriately is extremely important. You must make sure to accurately record your interviewee’s responses and to never twist their responses to mean something different from what they had intended.

     

    You also want to make sure to choose the best person for an interview. If you are writing a research paper on the challenges parents of special needs children face, for example, you would want to interview a mother or father who has a special-needs child or even a special education teacher, not your cousin who once had a special needs person living in her neighborhood.

     

    Not only are interviews conducted in a prescribed way, but using interview material in a research paper is also treated carefully. Using a ‘Q & A’ style of recording an interview is never appropriate for a research paper. Just like with other sources of information, interview material must be carefully embedded and cited!

    Objectives

    After completing this module, you should be able to:

    1.Conduct an interview for a research paper.

    2.Integrate interview material into a research paper.

    3.Identify different types of questions.

     

    Read the following on open and closed interview questions.

    Closed questions are used to acquire factual details and to check if you have your facts right. They are usually questions answered with “yes” or “no.”

    Examples:     Should I eat hot fudge or liver?  Is Big Bang Theory  your favorite TV show?  How many years have you been a baseball card collector?

    Open questions  encourage longer and more complex answers  and feedback from the person interviewed.

    Examples: How exactly did the two of you fall in love?  How did you decide to become a baseball card collector? What is the relationship of Sheldon’s love of comic books  and his love of physics?

    Assignment of open and closed questions for second small research essay:

    Choose two people to interview on the topic “Gender in the Workplace.” This will be the topic of your second small research essay. Prepare and submit a list of eight questions. I will be grading on the strength of your questions (for example, did you ask open-ended and follow-up questions). Each interview should ask at least eight questions and contain no more than one closed-ended question. Your questions should be designed to help you get primary source material for your essay.

     

    Second Small Research Essay:

    Using the questions you submitted in part one of this assignment, interview two different people on the topic of your research paper. These interviews will be used as your primary sources for your research paper. After you have interviewed your two subjects, use their information to write a 750-800 word essay on the general topic "Gender and the Workplace". Remember: this is not your thesis – just a launching point for your paper. In order to narrow the general topic, you may will need to use the brainstorming techniques . For further information on brainstorming, refer to pages 13–18 in Writing Research Papers.

     

    Papers will be graded on:

     

    •The strength of the thesis statement

    •The way the information was written up (How well were the answers integrated into the paper? Did the information support the thesis? Did you remember to not use a Q & A format when writing?)

    •Citation of sources

    •Grammar and punctuation

    In this paper, you will be conducting two interviews in order to get information to support your thesis. Interviews can be conducted in person, by telephone, or through an e-mail.

    Submit essay below.

     

  • Assignment of open and closed questions for second small research essay:

    Choose two people to interview on the topic “Gender in the Workplace.” This will be the topic of your second small research essay. Prepare and submit a list of eight questions. I will be grading on the strength of your questions (for example, did you ask open-ended and follow-up questions). Each interview should ask at least eight questions and contain no more than one closed-ended question. Your questions should be designed to help you get primary source material for your essay.

  • Second Small Research Essay:

    Using the questions you submitted in part one of this assignment, interview two different people on the topic of your research paper. These interviews will be used as your primary sources for your research paper. After you have interviewed your two subjects, use their information to write a 750-800 word essay on the general topic "Gender and the Workplace". Remember: this is not your thesis – just a launching point for your paper. In order to narrow the general topic, you may will need to use the brainstorming techniques . For further information on brainstorming, refer to pages 13–18 in Writing Research Papers.

     

    Papers will be graded on:

     

    •The strength of the thesis statement

    •The way the information was written up (How well were the answers integrated into the paper? Did the information support the thesis? Did you remember to not use a Q & A format when writing?)

    •Citation of sources

    •Grammar and punctuation

    In this paper, you will be conducting two interviews in order to get information to support your thesis. Interviews can be conducted in person, by telephone, or through an e-mail.

    Submit essay below.

  • Module 6: Summarizing and Paraphrasing and Annotated Bibliography; Improve Reasoning by Avoiding Logical Fallacies

     MODULE 6: SUMMARIZING AND PARAPHRASING AND ANNOTATED  BIBLIOGRAPHY; IMPROVE REASONING BY AVOIDING LOGICAL FALLACIES

    Believe it or not, using nothing but direct quotes is not the best way to incorporate source material into a research paper. In fact, it is recommended that you only use four or five direct quotes in a paper!

     

    A better way to incorporate sources into your research paper is to summarize or paraphrase them. A summary is a very short (generally one sentence) recap of the central message of the source. A paraphrase is a little longer, usually a paragraph, and highlights some of the main points in a source.

     

    By summarizing and paraphrasing your sources, you prove that you have completely understood the source material.

     

    Objectives

    After completing this module, you should be able to:

     

    1.Summarize source material

    2.Create an annotated bibliography

    3.Apply MLA standards to an annotated bibliography

    4. Strengthen reasoning by avoiding logical fallacies

    Read

    Read  in Chapter 8: “ Reading and Evaluating Sources” pages 120–144 in, Writing Research Papers.

    Make special note of the ‘Responding to a Source’ checklist on page 135. In order to better understand a research source when you are reading it, it may be necessary to underline passages, jot down notes in the margins, or create a brief outline of the ideas presented. See an example of an annotated bibliography on pages 136-137.

    .

     Annotated Assignment:

    Annotated Bibliography M7 Assignment: Annotated Bibliography item options Hide Details .Create an annotated bibliography from the assigned essays in Essays from Contemporary Culture. Your bibliography must adhere to MLA standards. Include ALL the following essays.An example of an annotated bibliography is on pages 136-137 of Writing Research Papers.

     

    The essays for this assignment are:

     

    •On Being a Cripple – Nancy Mairs p. 161

    •What’s in a Name? – Lini S. Kadaba p. 174

    •Just Walk on By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space – Brent Staples p. 184

    •Over 40 and Unmarried – Ron Beathard p. 252

    •Sex, Lies and Conversation – Deborah Tannen p. 231

    •What’s the Difference Between Boys and Girls – Deborah Blum p. 236

    •Men and Women in Search of Common Ground – Wendell Berry p. 244

      Again include ALL of the essays in the annotated bibliography.

     LOGICAL FALLACIES:  Read one link concerning logical fallacies.  https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/659/03/   


    Logical fallacy assignment: After reading the link, choose two logical fallacies and  give your own examples.


     

     

     

  • Annotated Bibliography M7 Assignment: Annotated Bibliography item options Hide Details .Create an annotated bibliography from the assigned essays in Essays from Contemporary Culture. Your bibliography must adhere to MLA standards. Include ALL the following essays.An example of an annotated bibliography is on pages 136-137 of Writing Research Papers.

     

    The essays for this assignment are:

     

    •On Being a Cripple – Nancy Mairs p. 161

    •What’s in a Name? – Lini S. Kadaba p. 174

    •Just Walk on By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space – Brent Staples p. 184

    •Over 40 and Unmarried – Ron Beathard p. 252

    •Sex, Lies and Conversation – Deborah Tannen p. 231

    •What’s the Difference Between Boys and Girls – Deborah Blum p. 236

    •Men and Women in Search of Common Ground – Wendell Berry p. 244

    This assignment is worth 100 points.  Again include ALL of the essays in the annotated bibliography.

    Submit below.

     

     

     

     

     

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  • Module 7: Integrating Sources MLA Style and cComprehend Outlining

    Module 7: Integrating Sources MLA Style and Comprehend Outlining

     

    Overview

    Just like attributing a direct quote is important, so is attributing a paraphrase or a summary from an outside source.

     Recognize and comprehend outlining.

    There are three important things to remember when using outside sources:

    1.Sources should be used sparingly. It is your original thoughts and ideas that make up the majority of a research paper. Sources should only be used as a way to back up and give credit to your ideas.

    2.Quotes, paraphrases and summaries should not stand alone. Whenever you use an outside source, it must be introduced and cited.

    3.Paraphrases and summaries should be either framed or blended into your research paper. Framing is a technique that is very similar to how interview material is treated. In framing, you introduce the source before using its information. Blending involves making minor changes in the paraphrase or summary so that the grammar and verb tenses flow with the rest of the essay.

    Using source material properly means more than just inserting an endless string of direct quotes. But by following these techniques and paying attention to how to properly use source material, you will be strengthening your research paper.

     

     

    Objectives

    After completing this module, you should be able to:

    1.Prepare source material so that it can be used in a research paper.

    2.Combine source material with your own words to form a paragraph suitable for a research paper.Comprehend and recognize outlining.

     Read

     Read chapter 11: “Blending Reference Material” into Your “Writing by Using MLA Style” (pages 183–207) in, Writing Research Papers.

    In Chapter 11, carefully read the book’s suggestions on how to blend source material into a research paper. Also note that parenthetical citations are still used even when the source material has been introduced into the paper.

     

    Chapter 12: Writing the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion (pages 208–226) in, Writing Research Papers.

    Chapter 12 has numerous examples of when it is necessary to use a source in a research paper.

     

    Chapter 13: Revising, Proofreading and Formatting the Rough Draft (pages 227–253) in, Writing Resarch Papers.

    Finally, Chapter 13 offers several examples of MLA style research papers. Do not skip over these examples! Instead, study them, paying close attention to how source material is used.

     

     Module 7 Blending Source Material M8B Assignment

    Use material from the following source to write a paragraph explaining what Dr. Martin Luther King Junior meant when he said, “…at the center of nonviolence stands the principle of love.” (390).

     

    For this assignment, do not use direct quotes. Instead use summaries or paraphrases of the material. Include framing and blending techniques. The paragraph should be at least five to seven sentences long. Proper grammar, spelling and punctuation is expected. You should also include a works cite page that references the original quote.

     

    “In speaking of love at this point, we are not referring to some sentimental or affectionate emotion. It would be nonsense to urge men to love their oppressors in an affectionate sense. Love in this connection means understanding, redemptive good will. Here the Greek language comes to our aid. There are three words for love in the Greek New Testament. First there is eros. In Platonic philosophy eros meant the yearning of the soul for the realm of the divine. It has come now to mean a sort of aesthetic or romantic love. Second, there is philia, which means intimate affection between personal friends. Philia denotes a sort of reciprocal love; the person loves because he is loved. When we speak of loving those who oppose us, we refer to neither eros nor philia; we speak of love which is expression in the Greek word agape. Agape means understanding, redeeming good will for all men. It is an overflowing love which is purely spontaneous, unmotivated, groundless, and creative. It is not set in motion by quality or function of its object. It is the love of God operating in the human heart.”

     

    King, Martin L. "Pilgrimage into Nonviolence." Essays from Contemporary Culture. Ed. Katherine A. Ackely. 5th ed. Boston: Thomson, Heinle, 2004. 388-92. Print.

     

     Comprehending and recognize outlining: Read the following link concerning outlining and recognize the four elements of outlining. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/544/01/

  • Module 7 Blending Source Material M8B Assignment

    Use material from the following source to write a paragraph explaining what Dr. Martin Luther King Junior meant when he said, “…at the center of nonviolence stands the principle of love.” (390).

     

    For this assignment, do not use direct quotes. Instead use summaries or paraphrases of the material. Include framing and blending techniques. The paragraph should be at least five to seven sentences long. Proper grammar, spelling and punctuation is expected. You should also include a works cite page that references the original quote.

     

    “In speaking of love at this point, we are not referring to some sentimental or affectionate emotion. It would be nonsense to urge men to love their oppressors in an affectionate sense. Love in this connection means understanding, redemptive good will. Here the Greek language comes to our aid. There are three words for love in the Greek New Testament. First there is eros. In Platonic philosophy eros meant the yearning of the soul for the realm of the divine. It has come now to mean a sort of aesthetic or romantic love. Second, there is philia, which means intimate affection between personal friends. Philia denotes a sort of reciprocal love; the person loves because he is loved. When we speak of loving those who oppose us, we refer to neither eros nor philia; we speak of love which is expression in the Greek word agape. Agape means understanding, redeeming good will for all men. It is an overflowing love which is purely spontaneous, unmotivated, groundless, and creative. It is not set in motion by quality or function of its object. It is the love of God operating in the human heart.”

     

    King, Martin L. "Pilgrimage into Nonviolence." Essays from Contemporary Culture. Ed. Katherine A. Ackely. 5th ed. Boston: Thomson, Heinle, 2004. 388-92. Print

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