1. Who dominated Athenian politics at the beginning of the Peloponnesian War?

A. Pericles 

B. Herodotus 

C. Lycurgus 

D. Solon


Who were the scholar-priests of the Persian world?

A. Satraps 

B. Magi

C. Avesta

 D. Mithras


What was the outcome of the Battle of Marathon?

A. The Persians won.

B. The Greeks won. 

C. The Macedonians united the Greek city states.

D. The Medes won.


Which of the following best describes the connections between Persia and Mesopotamia?

A. The Persian emperors had no interest in Mesopotamia, as they viewed the inhabitants of that region as infidels. 

B. The Persians were most influenced by the Mesopotamian culture in the area of religion. 

C. In areas such as law, government administration, and society, Persia was significantly influenced by Mesopotamia. 

D. The relationship between Persia and Mesopotamia was adversarial in nature because Mesopotamia continually rebelled against Persian domination.


Which Greek city-state was known for its strong navy?

A. Sparta

B. Athens

C. Corinth

D. Thebes

Entering the Iranian plateau, the Medes and Persians were part of what larger migration?

A. Neo-Babylonians 

B. Sea Peoples 

C. Indo-Europeans 

D. Assyrian



What was the goal of the Delian League?

A. Monopolizing Aegean trade 

B. Defense against Persia 

C. Defeat of Sparta

D. Alliance against Athens

The language of the Persians is today known as:

A. Latin. 

B. Farsi. 

C. Greek. 

D. Sanskrit.

Which of the following beliefs represents Stoic philosophy?

A. All matter is composed of atoms. 

B. Pleasure is simply the absence of pain.

C. One should not attempt to alter destiny. 

D. One should virtuously do one's duty even in times of crisis.

The single god worshiped by Zoroastrians is called:

A. Ahura Mazda.

B. Ahriman. 

C. Zoroaster.

D. Avesta.

Which man is revered as the first genuine historian?

A. Aristophanes 

B. Euripides

C. Sophocles

 D. Thucydides

How did the Greek city-states react to the disappearance of the Persian threat?

A. By engaging in conflict among themselves

B. By launching a massive assault on Persia

C. By a slow migration into Persian lands 

D. By uniting as a powerful state

How did the political systems in Athens and Sparta differ?

A. Athens didn't have hereditary kings; Sparta did. 

B. Athens was not a military dictatorship; Sparta was.

C. Athens allowed women to vote; Sparta didn't. 

D. Athens allowed all people to have a voice in the government; Sparta didn't.

Which of the following statements best represents Plato's attitude toward democracy?

A. It is the only logical choice for government in an educated society.

B. It is absurd because it gives power to the most popular instead of the educated. 

C. It leads to political inequality, but this is a necessary evil.

D. It is the best form of government.

Which of the following statements about Aristotle is NOT true?

A. He laid the foundation for many of the science courses studied in schools today. 

B. He was a poet and philosopher.

C. He was a leading Athenian dramatist.

D. In his later years he tutored Alexander the Great.

Which of the following statements about Aristotle is NOT true?

A. He laid the foundation for many of the science courses studied in schools today. 

B. He was a poet and philosopher.

 C. He was a leading Athenian dramatist. 

D. In his later years he tutored Alexander the Great

How did the work of Heinrich Schliemann at Troy transform our  understanding of early Greek civilization?

A. He found the Cretan Minoan civilization.

B. He proved it was much less sophisticated than previously thought.

C. He showed that Mycenae was destroyed by war.

D. He showed that the Iliad and Odyssey were based on a historical past.

How did the foundation of Persian civilization differ from the foundations of other ancient societies?

A. It developed without the use of agriculture.

B. It developed without a strong central government.

C. It developed in an area without river valleys.

D. It developed without connections with other civilizations.

How did Persian rule differ from that of other conquerors?

A. The Persians were more ruthless.

B. The Persians were less harsh. (than the Assyrians, for example)

C. The Persians were less organized.

D. The Persians did not expect cooperation from subject peoples.

Which of the following does NOT accurately describe Persian society?

A. The Persians loved celebrations and festivals. 

B. The Persians took great pride in their appearance.

C. The Persians enjoyed fine jewelry made of gold and silver.

D. The Persians preferred a simple, linear style of architecture.

Alexander the Great was unable to conquer India because:

A. the Indian army proved to be too powerful. 

B. Alexander's men staged a mutiny.

 C. Alexander lost the will to fight after the death of his mother. 

D. the Chinese army crossed the mountains and helped India fight.

The perils of increased slave ownership were shown by a revolt led by a gladiator named:

A. Hannibal.

B. Sulla.

C. Spartacus.

D. Cassius.

What was the role of Charles Martel, founder of the Carolingian dynasty?

A. He was mayor of the palace for the king of the Franks. 

B. He was king of the Franks. 

C. He was bishop of the Franks.

D. He was a Vandal who conquered the Franks.

The Great Schism of 1054 was a division between the Eastern and Western:

A. Roman Emperors. 

B. Christian churches.

C. kings of the Franks.

D. forms of monasticism.

Which man divided the Roman Empire into two parts after concluding that it was too big for one man to rule alone?

A. Diocletian 

B. Constantine

C. Justinian 

D. Nero

Why are French, Italian, and Portuguese known as the "romance languages"?

A. Because of their Roman origins

B. Because they are so beautiful when spoken

C. Because of their similarities with Romanian and Spanish tongues

 D. Because of their Greek roots

What was the "struggle of the orders"?

A. A conflict between the emperor and Senate 

B. A conflict between the patricians and plebeians 

C. A conflict between the Latins and Etruscans

D. A conflict between 

Which of the following statements accurately portrays early Roman-German connections and conflicts?

A. The Romans fought the Germans but also hired many of them for service in the army. 

B. The Romans largely ignored the Germans, unaware of the growing threat to the empire. 

C. The Germans sought to avoid warfare with the Romans and often engaged in commerce with them.

D. The Germanic tribes fell under Roman domination early but eventually rebelled.

Who was Rome’s main rival for control of the Mediterranean around 200 B.C.E.?

A. Greece 

B. Carthage 

C. Egypt 

D. The Seleucid Empire

How were serfs and slaves different?

A. Slaves had easier lives. 

B. Serfs could not be sold.

C. Serfs could seek other employment. 

D. Slaves could not marry

Which of the following statements concerning Roman law is NOT accurate?

A. Roman law distinguished between civil and criminal procedures.

B. Roman law aimed to achieve equity in resolving disputes.

C. Roman law was the foundation for international law.

 D. Roman law applied to Roman citizens but not foreigners.

Which man is considered to be the first Roman emperor?

A. Marius 

B. Sulla

C. Julius Caesar

D. Octavian

All of the following factors threatened Rome's stability during the Augustan Age EXCEPT:

A. Augustus never formalized the position of emperor. 

B. the empire had grown too large.

C. the empire expanded to include monotheistic societies.

D. the senate lost its power and never regained a political role

On Christmas Day, 800 CE, who crowned Charlemagne and named him "Charles Augustus"?

A. His father, Pepin 

B. The pope 

C. St. Benedict

D. Alaric the Goth

Which of the following territories was added to the Roman Empire during the reign of Hadrian?

A. Gaul 

B. Egypt

C. Greece

D. Britain

Who issued a decree making Christianity the official religion of Rome?

A. Diocletian

B. Galerius

C. Theodosius

 D. Constantine

Which of the following statements about the early medieval nobility is NOT true?

A. A vassal could only have one lord. 

B. Noble men were preoccupied with military duties. 

C. Noble women were trained for marriage and motherhood. 

D. Manors provided food for 

Which of the following statements concerning the fall of Rome is NOT true?

A. The western Roman provinces fell in 476. 

B. Rome continued to dominate European affairs through religion even after the fall of the political empire.

C. Byzantine emperors for centuries after the fall of Rome continued to refer to themselves as Roman emperors.

D. The eastern empire fell two hundred years after the western empire fell.



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