1) Acids act as 
hydroxyl ions. 
hydrogen ion acceptors. 
proton donors as do bases. 
proton donors while a base accepts protons. 
2) A base has a pH that is 
above 7. 
equal to 7. 
below 7. 
3) The buffer system is essential for overall body homeostasis. What condition is due to an increase in blood pH?
carbonic acid. 
4) What is a neurotransmitter?
A chemical messenger that carrier signals from a neuron to a receiving cells across a synapse. 
A chemical signal that is active at troponin active sites. 
A hormonal signal that causes only muscle contractions. 
An electrical signal that carrier signals from a neuron to a receiving cells across a synapse. 
5) What is the neuromuscular junction? 
A site where an electrical signal directly passes from a muscle to a neuron. 
A site where an axon comes close to the cell membrane of a muscle. 
A site where a dendrite comes close to the cell membrane of a muscle. 
6) How does calcium relate to muscle contractions? 
Calcium binds to tropomyosin and enables actin and myosin to interact. 
Calcium binds to acetylcholine and enables actin and myosin to interact. 
Calcium binds to actin and enables actin and myosin to interact. 
Calcium binds to troponin and enables actin and myosin to interact. 
7) The principal job of the human nervous system is to
store information. 
provide for defense against pathogens. 
facilitate communication among the body systems. 
replace or repair damaged tissues. 
8) The basic unit of the nervous system is
the neuron. 
the brain. 
a nerve. 
9) The single long process that extends from a typical motor nerve cell is the
10) At rest, a nerve cell has a high concentration of ____ inside and a high concentration of ____ outside.
calcium; phosphorus 
sodium; potassium 
potassium; sodium 
acetylcholine; chlorine 
11) For sodium to accumulate rapidly inside a neuron cell membrane,
there must be a dramatic increase in the negative charge of the cytoplasm 
a voltage surge must cause the sodium gates to close. 
a stimulus above the threshold must open sodium gates in an accelerating manner. 
the wave of repolarization must occur to reestablish a resting potential. 
12) Which is a junction between two neurons?
chemical synapse 
Schwann cell 
sodium gate 
13) A deterioration in the myelin sheaths of motor axons to the lower leg would be expected to
have little effect because the sheaths are for insulation only. 
cause immobility of the leg due to cessation of impulses to leg muscles. 
remove the restraints to ion movement and speed up impulse transmission. 
slow the rate of transmission and cause lack of motor control. 
14) The two MAJOR divisions of the nervous system are the
autonomic and peripheral systems. 
central and peripheral nervous systems. 
sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. 
cranial and spinal nerves. 
15) The autonomic subdivision of the vertebrate nervous system would innervate all but which of the following?
intestinal muscles 
skeletal muscles 
16) Which statement is true?
The sympathetic branch of the autonomic system usually speeds up the activities of the body. 
Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems send nerves to all organs. 
The sympathetic branch can have either excitatory or inhibitory effects depending on effects from the environment. 
The sympathetic nervous system that supplies an organ will also provide parasympathetic nerves to it. 
17) Information is processed and sensory input and motor responses are integrated in the
18) Destruction of the motor areas in the left cerebral cortex results in the loss of
voluntary movement on the left side of the body. 
sensation on the left side of the body. 
voluntary movement on the right side of the body. 
sensation on the right side of the body. 
19) When it comes to memory, information is processed based on
route of input. 
how much memory is already stored. 
20) Although most hormones work at sites distant from where they are secreted, some work locally, such as
thyroid stimulating hormone. 
luteinizing hormone. 
follicle stimulating hormone. 
21) The most common control mechanism to prevent overproduction or underproduction of hormones is
positive feedback. 
opposing interaction. 
negative feedback. 
synergistic interaction. 
22) Insulin and glucagon exhibit which type of hormone interaction?
23) The reason that some individual hormones have so many different effects is that
they influence gene transcription. 
the hormone is carried throughout the body and only a small amount is needed to produce its effect. 
they trigger a second messenger system that produces a cascade of effects. 
there are a great many different cells in different tissues that have specific receptors for the hormone. 
24) Which gland produces/releases hormones that have the widest range of effects on the body?
25) The pituitary gland is controlled by the
corpus callosum. 
26) If you were cast upon a desert island with no fresh water to drink, which of the following would increase in your bloodstream in an effort to conserve water?
antidiuretic hormone 
27) A drop in blood volume would trigger the body to secrete
antidiuretic hormones. 
parathyroid hormones. 
28) Oversecretion of growth hormone in childhood results in
pituitary gigantism. 
pituitary dwarfism. 
diabetes insipidus. 
29) You have just moved from Norfolk, Virginia (sea level), to Taos, New Mexico (high in the mountains), and you find yourself out of breath climbing a small hill. Three months later, climbing the same hill, you have no difficulty. In the interim you have not altered your level of activity or diet. Which hormone has been at work?
30) Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
stimulates the absorption of calcium in the kidneys. 
stimulates osteoblasts to digest bone. 
stimulates the release of intrinsic factor from the digestive tract. 
is secreted from the thyroid gland.




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    Acids act as

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